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Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(5)
Registration No. 333-263985
Prospectus Supplement
(To Prospectus dated June 2, 2022)
Modiv Inc.
$50,000,000
Class C Common Stock
On June 6, 2022, we entered into an At Market Issuance Sales Agreement, which we refer to as the “sales agreement”, with B. Riley Securities, Inc., Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated, BMO Capital Markets Corp., Colliers Securities LLC, EF Hutton, division of Benchmark Investments, LLC, Janney Montgomery Scott LLC, Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc. and Truist Securities, Inc., each, a “sales agent” and collectively, the “sales agents”, relating to the offer and sale of shares of our Class C common stock, $0.001 par value per share, or the “Class C Common Stock,” having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through the sales agents. The sales, if any, of the Class C Common Stock made under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will be made in negotiated transactions or other transactions that are deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Under the terms of the sales agreement, we may also sell shares to the sales agents as principal for their own account.
We will pay to the sales agents, upon each sale of Class C Common Stock pursuant to the sales agreement, an aggregate amount up to 2.2% of the gross proceeds from each such sale. A different amount of compensation may be paid by us when a sales agent purchases shares as principal at a price agreed to by us and the applicable sales agent. The sales agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our Class C Common Stock but will use their respective commercially reasonable efforts, as our sales agent and subject to the terms of the sales agreement, to sell the shares offered by this prospectus supplement, as instructed by us. In connection with the sale of our Class C Common Stock on our behalf, each sales agent will be deemed an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the sales agents will be deemed to be underwriting compensation. The offering of our Class C Common Stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale, pursuant to the sales agreement, of shares of our Class C Common Stock having an aggregate sales price of $50,000,000 and (2) the termination of the sales agreement by either us or the sales agents as permitted therein. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Our Class C Common Stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, or the NYSE, under the symbol “MDV.” On June 3, 2022, the last reported sale price of our Class C Common Stock on the NYSE was $18.72 per share.
Our Class C Common Stock is subject to certain restrictions on ownership and transfer designed, among other things, to preserve our qualification as a real estate investment trust, or “REIT”, for federal income tax purposes. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws – Restrictions on Ownership of Shares” on page 23 of the accompanying prospectus, as supplemented by “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, which we refer to as our “Annual Report”, and “Description of the Registrant’s Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” included as Exhibit 4.2 to our Annual Report, for more information about these restrictions.
Investing in our Class C Common Stock involves risks. Before buying our securities you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, including the section of this prospectus supplement entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-7 and the “Risk Factors” section of our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
B. Riley Securities
Baird
BMO Capital Markets
Colliers
Securities
LLC
 
 
 
 
EF Hutton,
division of Benchmark Investments, LLC
Janney Montgomery
Scott
Ladenburg Thalmann
Truist Securities
The date of this prospectus supplement is June 6, 2022.

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You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide information different from that contained in this prospectus supplement. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of Class C Common Stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus supplement, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or of any sale of our Class C Common Stock.
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Prospectus Supplement
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of the offer and sale from time to time of shares of our Class C Common Stock pursuant to the sales agreement and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus as well as the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. The second part, the accompanying prospectus, gives more general information about securities we may offer from time to time, some of which does not apply to the Class C Common Stock we are offering. To the extent any inconsistency or conflict exists between the information included in this prospectus supplement and the information included in the accompanying prospectus, the information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement updates and supersedes the information in the accompanying prospectus. This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference important business and financial information about us that is not included in, or delivered with, this prospectus supplement.
You should read carefully this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. You should also read and consider the information contained in this prospectus supplement under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation By Reference of Information Filed With The SEC”. Information incorporated by reference after the date of this prospectus supplement may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus supplement. Statements contained or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus as to the content of any contract or other document are not necessarily complete, and in each instance we refer you to the copy of the contract or other document filed as an exhibit to a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus, each such statement being qualified in all respects by such reference. Any information in such subsequent filings that is inconsistent with this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus will supersede the information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus or any earlier prospectus supplement.
References to “we,” “us,” “our,” “Modiv” or “our company” refer to the business of Modiv Inc. and all of its subsidiaries. The term “you” refers to a prospective investor.
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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The Securities and Exchange Commission, or the “SEC”, allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. Any statement contained in a document which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, or information we later file with the SEC modifies or replaces that information.
The documents listed below have been filed by us under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the “Exchange Act”, and, except to the extent such items have been furnished pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K, are incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2022, as amended by Amendment No. 1 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on April 25, 2022;
Our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on May 16, 2022;
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed on January 20, 2022, February 15, 2022, February 18, 2022, March 21, 2022 and May 23, 2022; and
The description of our shares of Class C Common Stock included as Exhibit 4.2, or the “Exhibit”, to our Annual Report.
In addition, all documents filed by us under Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (excluding any information that is deemed to have been “furnished” and not “filed” with the SEC) after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to the termination of this offering are incorporated by reference herein.
To obtain a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) please contact us at:
Modiv Inc.
120 Newport Center Drive
Newport Beach, CA 92660
Attention: Investor Relations
Tel: (888) 686-6348
Our SEC filings also are available on our Internet website at www.modiv.com. The information on our website is not, and you must not consider the information to be, a part of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus.
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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT CONCERNING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements contained in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus and other offering materials and documents deemed to be incorporated by reference herein or therein, other than historical facts, may be considered forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act. We intend for all such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act and other applicable law. Such statements include, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies, and prospects and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, as well as known and unknown risks, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or anticipated. Therefore, such statements are not intended to be a guarantee of our performance in future periods. Such forward-looking statements can generally be identified by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “can,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” or other similar words. Forward-looking statements that were true at the time made may ultimately prove to be incorrect or false. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which reflect our management’s view only as of the date of this prospectus supplement. Additionally, we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operating results. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:
We have only a limited operating history, and the prior performance of our real estate investments or real estate programs sponsored by us or our affiliates may not be indicative of our future results.
The current COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence of any future variants of COVID-19, and any future outbreak of other highly infectious or contagious diseases, could materially and adversely impact or disrupt our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and performance.
The continuing developments in the Russian war against Ukraine and sanctions which have been announced by the United States and other countries against Russia have caused and may continue to cause significant uncertainty in the market, adding to continuing concerns about supply chain disruptions, inflation and increases in interest rates in the market in which we operate.
Volatility in stock and bond markets, particularly the rapid rise in yields on U.S. Treasury securities, may negatively impact our operating results.
Listing on the NYSE does not guarantee an active and liquid market for our Class C Common Stock, and the market price and trading volume of our Class C Common Stock may fluctuate significantly.
Our 7.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share, or the “Series A Preferred Stock”, is senior to our Class C Common Stock, and the interests of our common stockholders could be diluted by the issuance of additional preferred stock and by other transactions in the future.
We may fail to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could adversely affect our operations and our ability to make distributions.
We may be unable to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-lease space as leases expire on favorable terms or at all.
If we fail to diversify our investment portfolio, downturns relating to certain geographic regions, industries or business sectors may have a more significant adverse impact on our assets and our ability to pay distributions than if we had a diversified investment portfolio.
We are subject to risks related to tenant concentration, and an adverse development with respect to a large tenant could materially and adversely affect us.
We are subject to disruptions in the financial markets and uncertain economic conditions that could adversely affect market rental rates, commercial real estate values and our ability to secure debt financing, service future debt obligations, or pay distributions to our stockholders.
Our properties and goodwill may be subject to further impairment charges.
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We are subject to competition in the acquisition and disposition of properties and in the leasing of our properties, and we may be unable to acquire or dispose of, or lease, our properties on advantageous terms.
We could be subject to risks associated with bankruptcies or insolvencies of tenants, or from tenant defaults generally.
We have substantial indebtedness, and may incur additional secured or unsecured debt, which may affect our ability to pay distributions, expose us to interest rate fluctuation risk, impose limitations on how we operate and expose us to the risk of default under our debt obligations.
We may not be able to extend or refinance existing indebtedness before it becomes due.
Cost inflation may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Restrictions on share ownership contained in our charter may inhibit market activity in shares of our stock and restrict our business combination opportunities.
We may not be able to attain or maintain profitability and we may not generate cash flows sufficient to pay distributions to stockholders or meet our debt service obligations.
We may be affected by risks resulting from losses in excess of insured limits.
Risks of security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology networks and related systems, could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
The factors identified under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q.
Any or all of our forward-looking statements in this prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference herein and in any other public statements we make may turn out to be incorrect. Actual results may differ from our forward-looking statements because of inaccurate assumptions we might make or because of the occurrence of known or unknown risks and uncertainties. Many factors mentioned under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement and in our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, will be important in determining future results. Consequently, no forward-looking statement can be guaranteed and you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Actual future results may vary materially.
Except as may be required under the United States federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You are advised, however, to consult any further disclosures we make in our reports that are filed from time to time with the SEC and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. In light of the factors referred to above, the future events discussed or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus may not occur and actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.
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PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT SUMMARY
This summary may not contain all of the information that is important to you. Before making a decision to purchase our Class C Common Stock, you should carefully read this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, especially the “Risk Factors” section on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, the “Risk Factors” section on page 7 of the accompanying prospectus and the “Risk Factors” section of our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated by reference herein, as well as the “Risk Factors” section in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, to the extent applicable, and the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and in the accompanying prospectus. Unless otherwise indicated, financial information included in this prospectus supplement is presented on an historical basis.
Our Business
Modiv is an internally-managed Maryland corporation that elected to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes beginning with the year ended December 31, 2016, that acquires, owns and actively manages a diversified portfolio of single-tenant net-lease properties throughout the United States. The Company primarily invests in industrial and retail properties that are mission critical to tenants. Driven by innovation and an investor-first focus, Modiv is committed to providing investors with Monthly Dividends and More Diversification.
Our Class C Common Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV” and has been trading since February 11, 2022. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our Class C Common Stock. Our Series A Preferred Stock also is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV.PA” and has been trading since September 14, 2021.
We intend to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we continue to meet the qualification requirements for taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income that we distribute to our stockholders each year. If we fail to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT in any year, our income will be taxed at regular corporate rates, and we may be precluded from qualifying for taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we failed to qualify. Such an event could materially and adversely affect our net income and cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Our principal executive offices are located at 120 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660. Our telephone number is (888) 686-6348. Our website is located at http://www.modiv.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus supplement or any accompanying prospectus or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.
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The Offering
The following is a brief summary of certain terms of this offering and is not intended to be complete. It does not contain all of the information that will be important to a purchaser of Class C Common Stock. For a more complete description of our Class C Common Stock, and any related restrictions see “Risk Factors” on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, “Description of Capital Stock and OP Units” and “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws” in the accompanying prospectus as well as “Risk Factors – Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” in our Annual Report and “Description of the Registrant’s Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934” included as Exhibit 4.2 to our Annual Report.
Issuer
Modiv Inc.
Securities offered
Shares of our Class C Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, having an aggregate sales price of up to $50,000,000.
Use of proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, at our discretion, to fund acquisition opportunities, for other direct or indirect acquisitions of, or investments in, real estate and real estate related assets, and for general corporate purposes, which may include leasing incentives, tenant improvements, capital expenditures, working capital and repayment of indebtedness, including our credit facility. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-8 of this prospectus supplement.
NYSE symbol
“MDV”
Restrictions on ownership
To assist us in complying with certain federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, among other purposes, our charter imposes certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our common stock including provisions, with certain exceptions, that restrict any person from owning, or being deemed to own by virtue of the constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our capital stock or more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding shares of common stock. See “Risk Factors” on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Restrictions on Ownership of Shares” beginning on page 23 of the accompanying prospectus, as supplemented by the Exhibit, and “Risk Factors - Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure” of our Annual Report.
Tax consequences
For a discussion of certain material U.S. federal income tax consequences regarding us and the purchase, sale and ownership of the shares of our Class C Common Stock, please see the information appearing under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus. Prospective investors in the shares of our Class C Common Stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income and other tax considerations to them of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the shares offered by this prospectus supplement.
Transfer agent
The transfer agent for our Class C Common Stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.
Risk factors
See the “Risk Factors” section on page S-7 of this prospectus supplement, the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page 7 of the accompanying prospectus and the “Risk Factors” section of our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, for other information you should consider before buying shares of our Class C Common Stock.
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RISK FACTORS
Before you decide to purchase our Class C Common Stock, you should be aware that there are risks in making this investment. You should carefully consider the risks described below and the “Risk Factors” section of our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K and, to the extent applicable, in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q , as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, together with all other information included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before you decide to invest in shares of our Class C Common Stock.
Risks Related to this Offering and Our Class C Common Stock
The actual number of shares we will issue under the sales agreement, and the amount of proceeds that we will receive, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver sales notices to the sales agents at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by the sales agent after delivery of a sales notice will fluctuate based on the market price of our Class C Common Stock during the sales period and limits we set with the sales agent. In addition, we are not obligated to issue any shares under the sales agreement. Accordingly, and because the price per share of each share of our Class C Common Stock that is sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our Class C Common Stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares, if any, that will ultimately be issued, or the resulting proceeds to us.
Our Class C Common Stock offered hereby will be sold in "at-the-market" offerings, and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares of Class C Common Stock in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
This offering may have a dilutive effect on our per share earnings, funds from operations and adjusted funds from operations.
The issuance of shares of our Class C Common Stock in this offering from time to time may have a dilutive effect on our per share earnings, funds from operations and adjusted funds from operations, and could cause the market price of shares of our Class C Common Stock to decline significantly.
Our management will have broad discretion with respect to the use of the proceeds of this offering.
Although we have described the intended use of proceeds for this offering in this prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion as to the application of these net proceeds and could use them for purposes other than those contemplated at the time of this offering. Our stockholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate and spend the net proceeds.
Our Class C Common Stock is subordinate to our Series A Preferred Stock and our existing and future debt, and your interests could be diluted by the issuance of additional preferred stock, future offerings of debt securities, which would be senior to our Class C Common Stock, or equity securities, and by other transactions.
Our Class C Common Stock ranks junior to all Series A Preferred Stock and our existing and future debt and to other non-equity claims on us and our assets available to satisfy claims against us, including claims in bankruptcy, liquidation or similar proceedings. Our credit facility includes, and our future debt may include, restrictions on our ability to pay dividends to common stockholders, including holders of Class C Common Stock. As of the date of this prospectus supplement, there are 2,000,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock issued and outstanding. In addition, our board of directors has the power under our charter to classify any of our unissued shares of preferred stock, and to reclassify any of our previously classified but unissued shares of preferred stock of any class or series, from time to time, in one or more series of preferred stock.
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In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by offering debt or equity securities, including medium term notes, senior or subordinated notes and classes of preferred or common stock. Debt securities or shares of preferred stock will generally be entitled to receive interest payments or distributions, both current and in connection with any liquidation or sale, prior to the holders of our Class C Common Stock. We are not required to offer any such additional debt or equity securities to existing common stockholders on a preemptive basis. Therefore, offerings of Class C Common Stock or other equity securities may dilute the holdings of our existing stockholders. Future offerings of debt or equity securities, or the perception that such offerings may occur, may reduce the market price of our Class C Common Stock and/or the distributions that we pay with respect to our Class C Common Stock. Because we may generally issue any such debt or equity securities in the future without obtaining the consent of our stockholders, you will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our Class C Common Stock and diluting your proportionate ownership.
Affiliates of the sales agents may receive benefits in connection with this offering.
Affiliates of BMO Capital Markets Corp. and Truist Securities, Inc., which are sales agents in this offering, are lenders under our $250.0 million credit facility comprised of a $100.0 million four-year revolving line of credit, or our revolving credit facility, and a $150.0 million five-year term loan, or the term loan, and together with our revolving credit facility, the credit facility. Under our credit facility, BMO Capital Markets Corp. and Truist Securities, Inc. act as joint-lead arrangers. To the extent that we use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay borrowings under our credit facility, these affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of our credit facility that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering. These transactions create potential conflicts of interest because these sales agents have an interest in the successful completion of this offering beyond the sales commission they will receive. These interests may influence the decision regarding the terms and circumstances under which the offering is completed.
USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our Class C Common Stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time-to-time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement with the sales agents as a source of financing.
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, at our discretion, to fund acquisition opportunities, for other direct or indirect acquisitions of, or investments in, real estate and real estate related assets, and for general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include leasing incentives, tenant improvements, capital expenditures, working capital and repayment of debt, including our credit facility.
Affiliates of BMO Capital Markets Corp. and Truist Securities, Inc., which are sales agents in this offering, are lenders under the credit facility. As described above, we may use a portion of the net proceeds from this offering to repay amounts outstanding under our credit facility.
As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we cannot specify with certainty all of the particular uses of the net proceeds to be received in connection with this offering. Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and investors will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding the application of the net proceeds from this offering.
FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
For a discussion of certain material U.S. federal income tax consequences regarding us and the purchase, sale and ownership of the shares of our Class C Common Stock, please see the information appearing under the heading “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in the accompanying prospectus. Prospective investors in the shares of our Class C Common Stock should consult their tax advisors regarding the U.S. federal income and other tax considerations to them of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of the shares offered by this prospectus supplement.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
On June 6, 2022, we entered into the sales agreement, relating to the offer and sale of shares of our Class C Common Stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through the sales agents. The sales, if any, of the Class C Common Stock made under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus may be made in transactions that are deemed to be "at-the-market" offerings, as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including, without limitation, sales made by means of ordinary brokers' transactions on the NYSE, to or through a market maker at market prices prevailing at time of sale, at prices relating to prevailing market prices or at negotiated prices. Under the terms of the sales agreement, we may also sell shares to the sales agents as principals for their own accounts.
From time to time during the term of the sales agreement, in connection with the sales agents acting as our agents, the sales agents will offer our Class C Common Stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and the applicable sales agent. We may designate the maximum amount or dollar value of shares of Class C Common Stock to be sold through a sales agent on a daily basis or otherwise as we and a sales agent agree and the minimum price per share at which such shares may be sold. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, the sales agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf the shares of our Class C Common Stock so designated by us. We may instruct the sales agents not to sell shares of Class C Common Stock if the sales cannot be affected at or above the price made through the sales agent designated by us in any such instruction. Shares of our Class C Common Stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be sold through only one of the sales agents on any given day. We or the sales agents may suspend the offering of our Class C Common Stock at any time upon proper notice to the other, and subject to the other conditions contained in the sales agreement, upon which the selling period will immediately terminate.
The sales agents will provide written confirmation to us no later than the opening of the trading day on the NYSE on the day following the trading day in which our shares of Class C Common Stock were sold under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the compensation payable by us to the applicable sales agent with respect to such sales and the net proceeds to us, with an itemization of the deductions made by the applicable sales agent from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of Class C Common Stock sold through the sales agents under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the aggregate compensation paid by us to the sales agent in connection with such sales of our Class C Common Stock.
Settlement for sales of our Class C Common Stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us, unless we agree otherwise with the sales agent in connection with a particular transaction. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
Sales of our Class C Common Stock as contemplated by this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the sales agents may agree upon. Sales of our Class C Common Stock may also be affected, from time-to-time, in one or more transactions described under the section “Plan of Distribution” in the accompanying prospectus.
We will pay to the sales agents, upon each sale of Class C Common Stock pursuant to the sales agreement, an aggregate amount up to 2.2% of the gross proceeds from each such sale. A different amount of compensation may be paid by us when a sales agent purchases shares as principal at a price agreed to by us and the applicable sales agent. We have agreed to reimburse the sales agents for certain expenses incurred in connection with this offering, not to exceed $100,000, in connection with the execution of the sales agreement, and not to exceed $50,000 per year thereafter in connection with updates at the Representation Dates (as defined in sales agreement). We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions or discounts payable or provided to the sales agents under the sales agreement and our reimbursement of certain expenses of the sales agents in connection with this offering, will be approximately $460,000.
We may also sell shares of our Class C Common Stock to a sales agent as principal for its own account at a price agreed upon at the time of sale. If we sell shares of our Class C Common Stock to a sales agent as principal, we will enter into a separate agreement setting forth the terms of such transaction, and, to the extent required by applicable law, we will describe this agreement in a separate prospectus supplement or pricing supplement.
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In connection with the sale of our Class C Common Stock on our behalf, the sales agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to the sales agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify the sales agents against certain civil liabilities, including certain liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments that the sales agents may be required to make because of those liabilities.
The offering of our Class C Common Stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale, pursuant to the sales agreement, of all of the shares of our Class C Common Stock having an aggregate sales price of $50,000,000 and (2) the termination of the sales agreement by either us or the sales agents as permitted therein.
In the ordinary course of their business, the sales agents and/or their respective affiliates have in the past provided, and may continue to provide, certain commercial banking, financial advisory, investment banking and other services for us or our affiliates, for which the sales agents and/or their respective affiliates have received and may continue to receive customary fees and commissions. In addition, the sales agents have advised that from time to time, such agents and/or their respective affiliates have in the past effected, and may continue to effect, transactions for their own account or the account of customers, and have held, and may continue to hold, on behalf of themselves or their customers, long or short positions in our equity securities or loans.
Affiliates of BMO Capital Markets Corp. and Truist Securities, Inc. are lenders under our credit facility, and BMO Capital Markets Corp. and Truist Securities, Inc. act as joint-lead arrangers for our credit facility. As described under “Use of Proceeds,” we may use a portion of the net proceeds of this offering to repay outstanding debt, including our credit facility. As a result, these affiliates will receive their proportionate share of any amount of our credit facility that is repaid with the net proceeds from this offering. In addition, Robert W. Baird & Co. Incorporated will pay a referral fee to an affiliate of The Huntington National Bank, one of the lenders under our credit facility, in connection with this offering.
The sales agents have also agreed that during the term of the sales agreement, such agent will not engage in any market making, bidding, stabilization or other trading activity with regard to our Class C Common Stock if such activity would be prohibited under Regulation M or other anti-manipulation rules under the Securities Act.
LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with the offering of securities covered by this prospectus supplement have been passed upon for us by Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP and, with respect to certain matters of Maryland law, will be passed upon for us by Venable LLP. The sales agents are being represented in connection with this offering by Morrison & Foerster LLP.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Modiv Inc. appearing in Modiv Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2021, including the schedule appearing therein, have been audited by Baker Tilly US, LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus supplement is part of the registration statement on Form S-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and does not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement to any of our contracts, agreements or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document. Because we are subject to the information and reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, we file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.
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PROSPECTUS

$200,000,000

Class C Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Warrants
Rights
Units
We may offer, issue and sell from time to time, together or separately, the following securities, at an aggregate public offering price that will not exceed $200,000,000:
Class C common stock;
preferred stock;
warrants;
rights; and
units.
We will provide the specific terms of any securities we may offer in supplements to this prospectus. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest. This prospectus may not be used to offer and sell any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement describing the amount of and terms of the offering of those securities.
We may offer and sell these securities to or through one or more underwriters, dealers or agents, or directly to purchasers on a continuous or delayed basis. We reserve the sole right to accept, and together with any underwriters, dealers and agents, reserve the right to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of securities. The names of any underwriters, dealers or agents involved in the sale of any securities, the specific manner in which they may be offered and any applicable commissions or discounts will be set forth in the prospectus supplement covering the sales of those securities.
We elected to be taxed as a real estate investment trust (“REIT”) for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2016. To assist us in complying with certain U.S. federal income tax requirements applicable to REITs, among other purposes, our charter generally limits beneficial and constructive ownership by any person to no more than 9.8% in value of our then outstanding shares of capital stock (which includes common stock and preferred stock we may issue) or more than 9.8% in value or number, whichever is more restrictive, of our then outstanding shares of common stock. In addition, our charter contains various other restrictions on the ownership and transfer of our common stock. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Restrictions on Ownership of Shares.”
Our Class C Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Class C Common Stock”), is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”) under the symbol “MDV.” The last reported sale price of our Class C Common Stock on the NYSE on March 29, 2022 was $17.52 per share. Our 7.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share (“Series A Preferred Stock”), is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV.PA.” The last reported sale price of our Series A Preferred Stock on the NYSE on March 29, 2022 was $25.05 per share. We have not yet determined whether any of the other securities that may be offered by this prospectus will be listed on any exchange, inter-dealer quotation system or over-the-counter system. If we decide to seek a listing for any of those securities, that will be disclosed in a prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves risks. Before making a decision to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risks described under the section entitled “Risk Factors” on page 7 of this prospectus and included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and other documents filed by us with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), including any risks described in any accompanying prospectus supplement.
Neither the SEC nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
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Unless otherwise indicated or unless the context requires otherwise, all references in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement to “Modiv,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” refer to Modiv Inc., a Maryland corporation, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, including, without limitation, Modiv Operating Partnership, LP, a Delaware limited partnership (the “Operating Partnership”), of which we are the sole general partner.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, as well as information that we have previously filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference, is accurate only as of the date of the applicable document. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.
The distribution of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and the offering of our securities in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. If you possess this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, you should find out about and observe these restrictions. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not an offer to sell our securities and are not soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted or where the person making the offer or sale is not qualified to do so or to any person to whom it is not permitted to make such offer or sale. See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a “shelf” registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell, at any time and from time to time, in one or more offerings, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. The exhibits to our registration statement and documents incorporated by reference contain the full text of certain contracts and other important documents that we have summarized in this prospectus or that we may summarize in a prospectus supplement. Since these summaries may not contain all the information that you may find important in deciding whether to purchase the securities we offer, you should review the full text of these documents. The registration statement and the exhibits and other documents can be obtained from the SEC as indicated under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.”
This prospectus only provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer, which is not meant to be a complete description of each security. Each time we offer securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that contains specific information about the terms of the offering and the securities being offered. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in the prospectus supplement. You should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the sections entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.”
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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF INFORMATION FILED WITH THE SEC
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Any statement contained in a document which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement is automatically updated and superseded if information contained in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, or information that we later file with the SEC, modifies or replaces this information. We incorporate by reference the following documents that we have filed with the SEC:
our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 23, 2022;
our Current Reports on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on January 20, 2022, February 15, 2022, February 18, 2022 and March 21, 2022;
the description of our Class C Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on February 9, 2022, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description; and
the description of our Series A Preferred Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, filed with the SEC on September 14, 2021, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
We are also incorporating by reference additional documents that we file with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”): (i) after the date of the initial registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement and (ii) after the date of this prospectus and prior to the termination of the offering of the securities described in this prospectus. We are not, however, incorporating by reference any documents or portions thereof, whether specifically listed above or filed in the future, that are not deemed “filed” with the SEC, including any information furnished pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or certain exhibits furnished pursuant to Item 9.01 of Form 8-K.
To receive a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including exhibits, if they are specifically incorporated by reference into the documents, call us at (888) 686-6348 or submit a written request to Modiv Inc., 120 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, California 92660, Attn: Investor Relations.
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, we maintain a website that contains information about us at http://www.modiv.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3, of which this prospectus is a part, including exhibits, schedules and amendments filed with, or incorporated by reference into, the registration statement, under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), with respect to the securities registered hereby. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and exhibits and schedules to the registration statement. For further information with respect to the Company and the securities registered hereby, reference is made to the registration statement, including the exhibits to the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement as to the contents of any contract or other document referred to in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement are not necessarily complete and, where such contract or other document is an exhibit to the registration statement, each statement is qualified in all respects by the exhibit to which the reference relates. The registration statement of which this prospectus is a part is available to you on the SEC’s website.
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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Certain statements contained in this prospectus, other than historical facts, may be considered forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act. We intend for all such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act and other applicable law. Such statements include, in particular, statements about our plans, strategies, and prospects and are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, as well as known and unknown risks, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or anticipated. Therefore, such statements are not intended to be a guarantee of our performance in future periods. Such forward-looking statements can generally be identified by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “may,” “can,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “expect,” “intend,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “believe,” “continue,” or other similar words. Forward-looking statements that were true at the time made may ultimately prove to be incorrect or false. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements, which reflect our management’s view only as of the date of this prospectus. Additionally, we undertake no obligation to update or revise forward-looking statements to reflect changed assumptions, the occurrence of unanticipated events or changes to future operating results. The following factors, among others, could cause actual results and future events to differ materially from those set forth or contemplated in the forward-looking statements:
the factors identified under the heading “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and other risks and uncertainties discussed herein and from time to time in our filings with the SEC;
the magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, including the emergence and spread of future variants thereof, and its impact on our tenants, operations and liquidity is uncertain as of the date of this prospectus and may continue to have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations;
we may be unable to renew leases, lease vacant space or re-lease space as leases expire on favorable terms or at all;
we are subject to risks associated with tenant, geographic and industry concentrations with respect to our properties;
our properties, intangible assets and other assets may be subject to further impairment charges;
we are subject to competition in the acquisition and disposition of properties and in the leasing of our properties, and we may be unable to acquire or dispose of, or lease, our properties on advantageous terms;
we could be subject to risks associated with bankruptcies or insolvencies of tenants or from tenant defaults generally;
we have substantial indebtedness, and may incur additional secured or unsecured debt, which may affect our ability to pay distributions, expose us to interest rate fluctuation risk, impose limitations on how we operate and expose us to the risk of default under our debt obligations;
we may not be able to extend or refinance existing indebtedness before it becomes due;
we may not be able to attain or maintain profitability;
the only sources of cash for distributions to investors will be cash flow from our operations (including sales of properties) or any net proceeds that result from financing or refinancing our properties;
we may not generate cash flows sufficient to pay our distributions to stockholders or meet our debt service obligations;
we may be affected by risks resulting from losses in excess of insured limits;
we may fail to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes;
risks of security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber intrusions or otherwise, as well as other significant disruptions of our information technology networks and related systems, could adversely affect our business and results of operations;
the trading price of our Class C Common Stock or our Series A Preferred Stock may fluctuate significantly; and
adverse macroeconomic conditions, including inflation, may affect (i) existing or prospective lessees’ businesses and their demand for space, and (ii) conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, and could result in declines in our income and asset values.
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MODIV INC.
Modiv is an internally-managed Maryland corporation that elected to qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes beginning with the year ended December 31, 2016, that acquires, owns and actively manages single-tenant net-lease industrial, retail and office properties throughout the United States, with a focus on strategically important and mission critical properties. Modiv seeks to provide investors access to MOnthly DIVidends and MOre DIVersification through a durable portfolio of real estate and real estate-related investments designed to generate both current income and long-term growth. Driven by innovation, an investor-first focus and an experienced and dedicated management team, Modiv leveraged its history as a real estate crowdfunding pioneer to create a $500 million real estate portfolio (based on estimated fair value) comprised of 2.4 million square feet of income-producing real estate as of December 31, 2021. Additionally, Modiv strives towards a “best-in-class” corporate governance structure through a board of directors and management team with decades of institutional real estate industry experience.
Modiv has been internally managed since its December 31, 2019 acquisition of the business of BrixInvest, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and Modiv’s former sponsor (“BrixInvest”), and merger with Rich Uncles Real Estate Investment Trust I (“REIT I”), as further described below.
Our Series A Preferred Stock is listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV.PA” and has been trading since September 14, 2021. Our Class C Common Stock is also listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV” and has been trading since February 11, 2022. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our Class C Common Stock. Our initial listed offering of our Class C Common Stock (the “Listed Offering”) closed on February 15, 2022.
Our primary business consists of acquiring and owning single-tenant net-lease industrial, retail and office real estate properties throughout the United States leased to creditworthy tenants on long-term leases, with a focus on strategically important and mission critical properties. As of December 31, 2021, our real estate investment portfolio consisted of 38 properties located in 14 states consisting of 12 industrial properties (one held for sale), including the 72.7% tenant-in-common interest in a Santa Clara, California industrial property (the “TIC Interest”), 12 retail properties and 14 office properties (three held for sale). The net book value of our real estate investments as of December 31, 2021 was $337,074,025.
Details of our diversified portfolio of 38 operating properties, including four properties held for sale and the TIC Interest, as of December 31, 2021 are as follows:
12 industrial properties (one held for sale), including the TIC Interest, which represented approximately 41% of the portfolio (expressed as a percentage of annual base rent for the next twelve months (“ABR”)), 12 retail properties, which represented approximately 9% of the portfolio and 14 office properties (three held for sale), which represented approximately 50% of the portfolio;
Occupancy rate of 100.0%;
Leased to 31 different commercial tenants doing business in 14 separate industries;
Approximately 2.4 million square feet of aggregate leasable space, including the TIC Interest;
An average leasable space per property of approximately 63,000 square feet; approximately 119,000 square feet per industrial property; approximately 13,000 square feet per retail property; and approximately 57,000 square feet per office property; and
On a pro forma basis (unaudited), after giving effect to the recently completed acquisitions of a retail property leased to a KIA auto dealership on Interstate 405 in Carson, California and an industrial property in Saint Paul, Minnesota in January 2022, and the sales of three office properties and one industrial property in February 2022, we now own 12 industrial properties, including the TIC Interest, which represent approximately 40% of the portfolio, 13 retail properties, which represent approximately 21% of the portfolio, and 11 office properties, which represent approximately 39% of the portfolio (expressed as a percentage of ABR).
As of December 31, 2021, all 38 operating properties in our portfolio are single-tenant net-lease properties and all 38 properties were leased, with a weighted average lease term (“WALT”), after reflecting lease extensions through the date of this prospectus and excluding rights to extend a lease at the option of the tenant, of approximately 6.3 years. On a pro forma basis (unaudited), after giving effect to the acquisitions and dispositions described above, the WALT increased to 9.2 years as of December 31, 2021.
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As of December 31, 2021, we held an approximate 72.7% TIC Interest in a 91,740 square foot industrial property located in Santa Clara, California. The remaining approximately 27.3% of undivided interest in the Santa Clara property is held by Hagg Lane II, LLC (an approximate 23.4% interest) and Hagg Lane III, LLC (an approximate 3.9% interest). The manager of Hagg Lane II, LLC and Hagg Lane III, LLC became an independent member of our board of directors in December 2019 and retired from our board of directors in December 2021.
To date, we have invested primarily in single tenant, income-producing properties, leased to creditworthy tenants under long-term net leases. Although we are not limited as to the form our investments may take, our investments in real estate will primarily constitute acquiring fee title or interests in entities that own and operate real estate. We own and will make acquisitions of our real estate investments through special purpose limited liability companies which are wholly-owned subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership or indirectly through limited liability companies or limited partnerships, including through other REITs, or through investments in joint ventures, partnerships, tenants-in-common, co-tenancies or other co-ownership arrangements with other owners of properties through special purpose limited liability companies which are wholly-owned subsidiaries of our Operating Partnership.
We conduct substantially all of our business through our Operating Partnership, of which we are the sole general partner. Until December 31, 2019, our business was externally managed by Rich Uncles NNN REIT Operator, LLC, our former advisor, a former wholly-owned subsidiary of BrixInvest. Our former advisor managed our operations and our portfolio of core real estate properties and real estate-related assets and provided asset management and other administrative services pursuant to our second amended and restated advisory agreement with our former advisor. BrixInvest also served as the sponsor and advisor for REIT I, through December 31, 2019.
On December 31, 2019, pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger dated September 19, 2019, REIT I merged with and into Katana Merger Sub, LP, a Delaware limited partnership and wholly-owned subsidiary of Modiv (“Merger Sub”), with Merger Sub surviving as our direct, wholly-owned subsidiary (the “Merger”). At such time, we issued 2,680,740 shares of Class C Common Stock to the stockholders of REIT I and the separate existence of REIT I ceased. In addition, on December 31, 2019, a self-management transaction was completed, whereby we, our Operating Partnership, BrixInvest and Daisho OP Holdings, LLC (“Daisho”), a formerly wholly-owned subsidiary of BrixInvest, effectuated a Contribution Agreement dated September 19, 2019 pursuant to which we acquired substantially all of the assets of BrixInvest in exchange for 657,949.5 units of Class M limited partnership interest (“Class M OP Units”) in our Operating Partnership (the “Self-Management Transaction”). As a result of the completion of the Merger and the Self-Management Transaction, we became self-managed.
We intend to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we continue to meet the qualification requirements for taxation as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the income that we distribute to our stockholders each year. If we fail to maintain our qualification for taxation as a REIT in any year, our income will be taxed at regular corporate rates, and we may be precluded from qualifying for taxation as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we failed to qualify. Such an event could materially and adversely affect our net income and cash available for distribution to our stockholders.
Our principal executive offices are located at 120 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660. Our telephone number is (888) 686-6348. Our website is located at http://www.modiv.com. The information found on, or otherwise accessible through, our website is not incorporated into, and does not form a part of, this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement or any other report or document we file with or furnish to the SEC.
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RISK FACTORS
Before purchasing any securities offered by this prospectus, you should carefully consider the risk factors under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in Part I, Item 1A of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, which are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, the risks, uncertainties and additional information set forth in our SEC reports on Forms 10-K, 10-Q and 8-K and in the other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any risks described in any accompanying prospectus supplement. For a description of these reports and documents, and information about where you can find them, see “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference of Information Filed with the SEC.” Additional risks not presently known or that are currently deemed immaterial could also materially and adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
Unless otherwise set forth in a prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the offering of securities by us under this prospectus for general corporate purposes, including funding acquisitions, leasing incentives, tenant improvements, capital expenditures, working capital and repayment of indebtedness. Further details relating to the use of the net proceeds from the offering of securities under this prospectus will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DILUTION
We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the following information regarding any material dilution of the equity interests of investors purchasing securities in an offering under this prospectus, if required at that time:
the net tangible book value per share of our equity securities before and after the offering;
the amount of the increase in such net tangible book value per share attributable to the cash payments made by purchasers in the offering; and
the amount of immediate dilution from the public offering price which will be absorbed by such purchasers.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK AND OP UNITS
The following is a summary of the material terms of our capital stock and the units of limited partnership interest in the Operating Partnership (the “OP Units”). While we believe that the following description covers the material terms of our capital stock and the OP Units, the description may not contain all of the information that is important to you. We encourage you to read carefully this entire prospectus, the Maryland General Corporation Law (the “MGCL”), the Delaware Revised Uniform Limited Partnership Act and our charter and bylaws and the Third Amended and Restated Limited Partnership Agreement of the Operating Partnership (as amended, the “Operating Partnership Agreement”), which are incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s SEC filings. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
General
Our charter authorizes us to issue up to 450,000,000 shares of stock, consisting of 300,000,000 shares of Class C Common Stock, 100,000,000 shares of Class S Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share, and 50,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share, of which 2,000,000 shares are designated as Series A Preferred Stock. As of February 28, 2022, we had the following stock issued and outstanding: (i) 2,000,000 shares of Series A Preferred Stock which trades on the NYSE under the symbol MDV.PA; and (ii) 7,561,987 shares of Class C Common Stock which trades on the NYSE under the symbol MDV. Our board of directors, with the approval of the entire board of directors and without any action by stockholders, may amend our charter from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of authorized shares or the number of shares of stock and any class or series that we have authority to issue.
Common Stock
Subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock and except as may otherwise be specified in the terms of any class or series of common stock, each outstanding share of common stock entitles the holder to one vote on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders, including the election of directors and, except as provided with respect to any other class or series of stock, the holders of shares of common stock will possess the exclusive voting power. Our charter does not provide for cumulative voting in the election of our directors. Therefore, the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares of common stock, voting together as a single class, can elect our entire board of directors.
Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding class or series of shares of stock and to the provisions in our charter regarding the restriction on ownership and transfer of stock, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive such distributions as may be authorized from time to time by our board of directors and declared by us out of legally available funds and, upon liquidation, are entitled to receive all assets available for distribution to our stockholders. Holders of shares of our common stock do not have preemptive rights, which means that they will not have an automatic option to purchase any new shares that we issue, nor do holders of our shares of common stock have any preference, conversion, exchange, sinking fund, or appraisal rights.
Our charter also authorizes our board of directors to classify and reclassify any unissued shares of our common stock into other classes or series of stock, including one or more classes or series of stock that have priority over our common stock with respect to voting rights, distributions or upon liquidation, and authorizes us to issue the newly classified shares. Prior to the issuance of shares of each new class or series of stock, our board of directors is required by Maryland law and by our charter to set, subject to the provisions of our charter regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock, the preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends or other distributions, qualifications and terms and conditions of redemption for each class or series. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize the issuance of shares of common stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
Preferred Stock
Our charter authorizes our board of directors to designate and issue one or more classes or series of preferred stock without approval of our common stockholders and to establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends and other distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of repurchase of each class or series of preferred stock so issued. Therefore, our board of directors could authorize
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the issuance of additional shares of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control or other transaction that might involve a premium price for shares of our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders. The issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control.
Ranking
The Series A Preferred Stock ranks, with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding-up:
senior to our common stock and to all other equity securities issued by the Company, the terms of which expressly provide that such securities rank junior to the Series A Preferred Stock;
on parity with all equity securities issued by the Company, the terms of which expressly provide that such securities rank on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock; and
junior to all equity securities issued by the Company, the terms of which expressly provide that such securities rank senior to the Series A Preferred Stock.
Dividends
Holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to receive, when, as and if authorized by our board of directors and declared by us, out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends, cumulative cash dividends in the amount of $1.84375 per share each year, which is equivalent to the rate of 7.375% of the $25.00 liquidation preference per share per annum.
Liquidation Preference
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs, the holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to be paid out of our assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders a liquidation preference of  $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid dividends (whether or not authorized or declared) to, but not including, the date of payment, after payment of or provision for our debts and liabilities and any other class or series of our capital stock ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation rights before any distribution or payment may be made to holders of common stock or any other class or series of our equity stock ranking junior to the Series A Preferred Stock with respect to liquidation rights.
Optional Redemption
The Series A Preferred Stock is not redeemable prior to September 17, 2026, except in the circumstances described in this section, in the section below titled “— Special Optional Redemption,” or pursuant to certain provisions of our charter. See “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws— Restrictions on Ownership of Shares” below.
On and after September 17, 2026, the Series A Preferred Stock may be redeemed at our option, in whole or in part, at any time or from time to time, at a redemption price of  $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid (whether or not authorized or declared), if any, to, but not including, the redemption date (unless the redemption date is after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for the accrued and unpaid dividend will be included in the redemption price), without interest.
Special Optional Redemption
During any period of time (whether before or after September 17, 2026) that the Series A Preferred Stock is not listed on the Nasdaq Stock Market, the NYSE or the NYSE American LLC (the “NYSE American”), or not listed or quoted on an exchange or quotation system that is a successor to the Nasdaq Stock Market, the NYSE or the NYSE American, but any shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding (a “Delisting Event”), we have the option to redeem the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, after the occurrence of the Delisting Event, for a redemption price of $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid (whether or not authorized or declared), if any, to, but not including, the redemption date (unless the redemption date is after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for the accrued and unpaid dividend payable on the payment date will be included in the redemption price).
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In addition to the foregoing, upon the occurrence of a Delisting Event, the dividend rate specified shall be increased on the day after the occurrence of the Delisting Event by 2.00% per annum to the rate of 9.375% of the $25.00 per share stated liquidation preference per annum (equivalent to $2.34375 per annum per share) from and after the date of the Delisting Event. Following the cure of a Delisting Event, the dividend rate shall revert to the rate of 7.375% of the $25.00 per share stated liquidation preference per annum.
In addition, upon the occurrence of a change of control, we may, at our option, redeem the Series A Preferred Stock, in whole or in part, on, or within 120 days after, the first date on which the change of control occurred, by paying $25.00 per share, plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid (whether or not declared), if any, to, but not including, the redemption date (unless the redemption date is after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for the accrued and unpaid dividend payable on the payment date will be included in the redemption price) without interest.
Additional Provisions Relating to Optional Redemption and Special Optional Redemption
The holders of Series A Preferred Stock at the close of business on a dividend record date will be entitled to receive the dividend payable with respect to the Series A Preferred Stock on the corresponding dividend payment date notwithstanding the redemption of the Series A Preferred Stock between such record date and the corresponding dividend payment date, but no additional amount for accrued and unpaid dividends, if any, to, but not including the redemption date, will be included in the redemption price for each share of Series A Preferred Stock to be redeemed.
Change of Control Conversion Right
Upon the occurrence of a change of control during a continuing Delisting Event, each holder of Series A Preferred Stock has the right, unless, prior to the Change of Control Conversion Date (as defined below), we have provided or provide notice of our election to redeem the shares of Series A Preferred Stock as described under “— Optional Redemption” or “— Special Optional Redemption,” to convert some of or all the shares of Series A Preferred Stock held by the holder (the “CoC Conversion Right”) on the Change of Control Conversion Date into a number of shares of common stock per share of Series A Preferred Stock (the “Common Stock Conversion Consideration”), which is equal to the lesser of:
the quotient obtained by dividing (i) the sum of the $25.00 liquidation preference per share of Series A Preferred Stock to be converted plus an amount equal to all dividends accrued and unpaid (whether or not authorized or declared) on the Series A Preferred Stock to, but not including, the Change of Control Conversion Date (unless the Change of Control Conversion Date is after a dividend record date and prior to the corresponding dividend payment date, in which case no additional amount for the accrued and unpaid dividend payable on the payment date will be included in this sum), by (ii) the Common Stock Price (as defined in the articles supplementary designating the Series A Preferred Stock (the “Articles Supplementary”)); and
1.9194 (as adjusted as described below, the “Share Cap”).
The Share Cap is subject to pro rata adjustments for any stock splits (including those effected pursuant to a common stock dividend), subdivisions or combinations with respect to shares of our common stock. A Change of Control Conversion Date with respect to any change of control means a business day fixed by our board of directors that is not fewer than 20 days and not more than 35 days after the date on which we provide notice of the change of control pursuant to the Articles Supplementary.
Voting Rights
Except as described below, holders of Series A Preferred Stock generally have no voting rights.
Whenever dividends on the Series A Preferred Stock are in arrears, whether or not authorized or declared, or the dividends are consecutive, for six or more quarterly periods, holders of Series A Preferred Stock and any other class or series of preferred stock ranking on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up and upon which like voting rights have been conferred and are exercisable, which we refer to as “voting preferred stock,” and with which the holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to vote together as a single class, will have the exclusive power, voting together as a single class, to elect two additional directors to serve on our board of directors. The right of holders of Series A Preferred Stock to vote in the election of directors will terminate when all dividends accrued and unpaid on
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the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock for all past dividend periods and the then-current dividend period have been fully paid. The term of office of these directors will terminate, and the number of our directors will automatically decrease by two, when all dividends accrued and unpaid for all past dividend periods and the then-current dividend period on the Series A Preferred Stock have been fully paid, unless shares of voting preferred stock (excluding, for the avoidance of doubt, Series A Preferred Stock) remain outstanding and entitled to vote in the election of directors.
So long as any shares of Series A Preferred Stock are outstanding, the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds of the outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock and each other class or series of voting preferred stock with which the holders of Series A Preferred Stock are entitled to vote as a single class on such matter (voting together as a single class), is required to authorize (a) any amendment, alteration, repeal or other change to any provision of our charter, including the Articles Supplementary (whether by merger, conversion, consolidation, transfer or conveyance of all or substantially all of our assets or otherwise), that would materially and adversely affect the rights, preferences, privileges or voting powers of the Series A Preferred Stock, or (b) the creation, issuance or increase in the authorized number of shares of any class or series of stock ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Stock (or any equity securities convertible into or exchangeable for any such shares) with respect to dividend rights and rights upon our voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up. Notwithstanding the foregoing, holders of voting preferred stock will not be entitled to vote together as a class with the holders of Series A Preferred Stock on any amendment, alteration, repeal or other change to any provision of our charter unless the action affects the holders of Series A Preferred Stock and the voting preferred stock equally.
Among other things, we may, without a vote of the holders of the Series A Preferred Stock, issue additional shares of Series A Preferred Stock and we may authorize and issue additional classes or series of preferred stock ranking on parity with the Series A Preferred Stock as to the payment of dividends and the distribution of assets upon liquidation.
The holders of Series A Preferred Stock shall have exclusive voting rights on any charter amendment that would alter the contract right, as expressly set forth in the charter, on only the Series A Preferred Stock.
The voting provisions above will not apply if, at or prior to the time when the act with respect to which the vote would otherwise be required would occur, we have redeemed or called for redemption all outstanding shares of Series A Preferred Stock.
No Maturity, Sinking Fund or Mandatory Redemption
The Series A Preferred Stock has no stated maturity date and is not subject to any sinking fund or mandatory redemption provisions.
Restrictions on Transfer and Ownership of Stock
Our charter contains restrictions on the ownership and transfer of shares of our common stock and other outstanding shares of stock, including the Series A Preferred Stock. The relevant sections of our charter provide that, subject to certain exceptions, no person or entity may own, or be deemed to own, by virtue of the applicable constructive ownership provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Internal Revenue Code”), more than 9.8% in value of the aggregate of the outstanding shares of our capital stock or more than 9.8% (in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive) of our outstanding shares of common stock. For further information regarding the restrictions on ownership and transfer of the Series A Preferred Stock, see “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of our Charter and Bylaws — Restrictions on Ownership of Shares” below.
Conversion
The Series A Preferred Stock is not convertible into any other property or securities, except as provided under “— Change of Control Conversion Right.”
Preemptive Rights
No holders of Series A Preferred Stock shall, as a result of his, her or its status as such holder, have any preemptive rights to purchase or subscribe for shares of our common stock or any of our other securities.
Listing
The shares of Series A Preferred Stock are listed on the NYSE under the symbol “MDV.PA.”
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Terms of OP Units
The Operating Partnership Agreement provides the terms of the Class M OP Units and the units of Class P limited partnership interest (“Class P OP Units”) in the Operating Partnership issued in connection with the Self-Management Transaction, as further described below, and the units of Class R limited partnership interest (the “Class R OP Units”) and the 7.375% Series A Cumulative Redeemable Perpetual Preferred Units (the “Series A Preferred Units”) in the Operating Partnership, described below.
Class M OP Units
The Class M OP Units were issued to Daisho on December 31, 2019 in connection with the Self-Management Transaction and are non-voting, non-dividend accruing, and were not able to be converted or exchanged prior to the one-year anniversary of the completion of the Self-Management Transaction. Investors holding units in BrixInvest received Daisho units in a ratio of 1:1 for an aggregate of 657,949.5 Daisho units. During 2020, Daisho distributed the Class M OP Units to its members and the Class M OP Units will become convertible into units of Class C limited partnership interest (“Class C OP Units”) in the Operating Partnership at a conversion ratio of 1.6667 Class C OP Units for each one Class M OP Unit, subject to a reduction in the conversion ratio (which reduction will vary depending upon the amount of time held) if the exchange occurs prior to the four-year anniversary of the completion of the Self-Management Transaction. As of the date of this prospectus, no Class M OP Units have been converted to Class C OP Units.
In the event that the Class M OP Units are converted into Class C OP Units prior to December 31, 2023, such Class M OP Units shall be exchanged at the rate indicated below:
Date of Exchange
Early Conversion Rate
From December 31, 2020 to December 30, 2021
50% of the Class M OP Unit conversion ratio
From December 31, 2021 to December 30, 2022
60% of the Class M OP Unit conversion ratio
From December 31, 2022 to December 30, 2023
70% of the Class M OP Unit conversion ratio
The Class M OP Units will be automatically and mandatorily converted into Class C OP Units on March 31, 2024 at the then-applicable Class M OP Unit conversion ratio.
The Class M OP Units are eligible for an increase in the conversion ratio (conversion ratio enhancement) if the Company achieves both of the targets for assets under management (“AUM”) and adjusted funds from operations (“AFFO”) per share in a given year as set forth below:
 
Hurdles
 
AUM
($ in
billions)
AFFO Per Share
($)
Class M
Conversion Ratio
Initial Conversion Ratio
 
 
1:1.6667
Fiscal Year 2021
0.860
1.77
1:1.9167
Fiscal Year 2022
1.175
1.95
1:2.5000
Fiscal Year 2023
1.551
2.10
1:3.0000
The hurdles for AUM and AFFO per share were not met for fiscal year 2021. Based on the current conversion ratio of 1.6667 Class C OP Units for each one Class M OP Unit, if a Class M OP Unit is converted on or after December 31, 2023, and based on the Listed Offering price of $25.00 per share, a Class M OP Unit would be valued at $41.67 (unaudited). This value does not reflect the early conversion rate or the future conversion enhancement ratio of the Class M OP Units, as discussed above, and the Class P OP Units, as discussed below.
Class P OP Units
The Company issued the Class P OP Units in connection with the Self-Management Transaction. The Class P OP Units are intended to be treated as “profits interests” in the Operating Partnership, which are non-voting, non-dividend accruing, and are not able to be transferred or exchanged prior to the earlier of (1) March 31, 2024, (2) a change of control (as defined in the Operating Partnership Agreement), or (3) the date of the recipient’s involuntary termination (as defined in the relevant award agreement for the Class P OP Units) (collectively, the “Lockup Period”). Following the expiration of the Lockup Period, the Class P OP Units are convertible into Class C OP Units
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at a conversion ratio of 1.6667 Class C OP Units for each one Class P OP Unit; provided, however, that the foregoing conversion ratio shall be subject to increase on generally the same terms and conditions as the Class M OP Units, as set forth above.
The Company issued a total of 56,029 Class P OP Units to Aaron S. Halfacre, the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and President, and Raymond J. Pacini, the Company’s Chief Financial Officer, including 26,318 Class P OP Units issued in exchange for Messrs. Halfacre’s and Pacini’s agreements to forfeit a similar number of restricted units in BrixInvest in connection with the Self-Management Transaction. The remaining 29,711 Class P OP Units were issued to both executives as a portion of their incentive compensation for 2020 in connection with their entry into restrictive covenant agreements.
Under the Operating Partnership Agreement, once the Class M OP Units or Class P OP Units are converted into Class C OP Units, they will be exchangeable for the Company’s Class C Common Stock on a 1-for-1 basis, or for cash at the sole and absolute discretion of the Company.
Class R OP Units
On January 25, 2021, the compensation committee of our board of directors recommended, and our board of directors approved, the grant of 40,000 Class R OP Units to Mr. Halfacre in recognition of his voluntary reduction in his 2020 compensation plus 170,667 Class R OP Units to Mr. Halfacre as equity incentive compensation for the next three years, and the grant of 33,333 Class R OP Units to Mr. Pacini as equity incentive compensation for the next three years. An additional 116,000 Class R OP Units were granted to the rest of the employees of the Company for a total of 360,000 Class R OP Units granted. All of the Class R OP Units vest on January 25, 2024 and are then mandatorily convertible into Class C OP Units on March 31, 2024 at a conversion ratio of 1:1, which conversion ratio can increase to 1:2.5 Class C OP Units if the Company generates funds from operations of $1.05, or more, per weighted average fully-diluted share outstanding for the year ending December 31, 2023.
Class C OP Units
On January 18, 2022, we issued 1,312,382 Class C OP Units in connection with the acquisition of one of the three largest KIA auto dealership properties in the U.S. Following the expiration of a lock-up period ending on August 11, 2022, the holder of the Class C OP Units may require the redemption of all or a portion of these units for cash or, at our option as the general partner of the Operating Partnership, shares of Class C Common Stock.
Series A Preferred Units
The Series A Preferred Units have the designations, preferences and other rights such that the economic interests are substantially similar to the designations, preferences and other rights of the Series A Preferred Stock. Accordingly, the Series A Preferred Units rank, with respect to distribution rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Operating Partnership, (a) senior to Class C OP Units and Class M OP Units and any other class or series of unit designated as common and any class or series of preferred units expressly designated as ranking junior to the Series A Preferred Units as to distribution rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Operating Partnership (the “Series A Junior Units”); (b) on a parity with any other class or series of preferred units issued by the Operating Partnership expressly designated as ranking on a parity with the Series A Preferred Units as to distribution rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Operating Partnership (the “Series A Parity Preferred Units”); and (c) junior to any other class or series of preferred units issued by the Operating Partnership expressly designated as ranking senior to the Series A Preferred Units with respect to distribution rights and rights upon liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Operating Partnership (the “Series A Senior Preferred Units”). The Series A Preferred Units also rank junior in right or payment to the Operating Partnership’s existing and future indebtedness.
Upon any voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of the Operating Partnership, the holders of Series A Preferred Units will be entitled to be paid out of the assets of the Operating Partnership legally available for distribution to its partners, after payment of or provision for the Operating Partnership’s debts and other liabilities and subject to the preferential rights of any holders of any Series A Senior Preferred Units, a liquidation preference of $25.00 per unit, plus an amount equal to any accrued and unpaid distributions (whether or not authorized or declared) thereon, but not including the date of payment, without interest, before any distribution of assets is made to holders of Series A Junior Units. If the assets of the Operating Partnership legally available for distribution to partners are insufficient to pay in full the liquidation preference on the Series A
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Preferred Units and the liquidation preference on any Series A Parity Preferred Units, all assets distributed to the holders of the Series A Preferred Units and any Series A Parity Preferred Units shall be distributed ratably in proportion to the full liquidating distributions to which they would otherwise be respectively entitled.
In connection with any conversion of any shares of our Series A Preferred Stock, the Operating Partnership shall convert, on the date of such conversion, a number of outstanding Series A Preferred Units into a number of Class C OP Units equivalent to the product of the number of shares of Class C Common Stock issued upon conversion of the Series A Preferred Stock multiplied by the conversion factor set forth in the Operating Partnership Agreement. Similarly, in connection with any redemption of shares of Series A Preferred Stock, the Operating Partnership, on the date of such redemption, shall redeem a like number of Series A Preferred Units.
Holders of the Series A Preferred Units do not have any voting rights.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
This section describes the general terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the warrants then offered, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of common stock or preferred stock, respectively referred to as common stock warrants and preferred stock warrants. Warrants may be issued independently or together with any other securities offered by this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement and may be attached to or separate from such other securities. Each issuance of the warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into by us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of offered warrants. Each issue of warrants will be evidenced by warrant certificates. The warrant agent will act solely as an agent of ours in connection with the warrant certificates and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holder of warrant certificates or beneficial owners of warrants.
If we offer warrants pursuant to this prospectus in the future, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of such warrants, including the following, where applicable:
the offering price;
the aggregate number of shares purchasable upon exercise of such warrants, and in the case of warrants for preferred stock, the designation, aggregate number, and terms of the class or series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of such warrants;
the designation and terms of the securities with which such warrants are being offered, if any, and the number of such warrants being offered with each such security;
the date on and after which such warrants and any related securities will be transferable separately;
the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock purchasable upon exercise of each of such warrants and the price at which such number of shares of preferred stock or common stock may be purchased upon such exercise;
the date on which the right to exercise such warrants shall commence and the expiration date on which such right shall expire;
material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the warrants; and
any other material terms of such warrants.
Holders of future warrants, if any, will not be entitled by virtue of being such holders, to vote, to consent, to receive dividends, to receive notice with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter, or to exercise any rights whatsoever as stockholders of the Company.
If warrants for the purchase of shares of preferred stock are offered, the applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the terms of the preferred stock into which the warrants are exercisable as described under “Description of Capital Stock and OP Units—Preferred Stock.”
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DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS
This section describes the general terms and provisions of the rights that we may offer by this prospectus. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the rights then offered, and the terms and provisions described in this section will apply only to the extent not superseded by the terms of the applicable prospectus supplement.
We may issue rights to our stockholders for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock. Each series of rights will be issued under a separate rights agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as rights agent, all as set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular issue of rights. The rights agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the certificates relating to the rights of such series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of the rights. The rights agreement and the form of rights certificates relating to each series of rights will be filed with the SEC and incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the following terms, where applicable, of the rights in respect of which this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement are being delivered:
the date for determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;
the aggregate number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights and the exercise price;
the designation and terms of the preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights, if applicable;
the aggregate number of rights being issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the rights may be transferable separately;
the date on which the right to exercise such rights shall commence and the date on which such right shall expire;
any listing of the rights and the shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights on any national securities exchange;
if appropriate, a discussion of any additional material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the rights; and
any other material terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of such rights.
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
This section describes some of the general terms and provisions applicable to units we may issue from time to time. We will describe the specific terms of a series of units and the applicable unit agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement. The following description and any description of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement may not be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to the terms and provisions of the applicable unit agreement. A form of the unit agreement reflecting the particular terms and provisions of a series of offered units will be filed with the SEC in connection with the offering and incorporated by reference in the registration statement and this prospectus.
We may issue units from time to time in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we determine. We will issue each series of units under a unit agreement to be entered into between us and a unit agent to be designated in the applicable prospectus supplement. When we refer to a series of units, we mean all units issued as part of the same series under the applicable unit agreement.
We may issue units consisting of any combination of two or more securities described in this prospectus. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.
The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the units offered pursuant to it, including one or more of the following:
the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;
the aggregate number of, and the price at which we will issue, the units;
any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units;
whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form;
the name of the unit agent;
a description of the terms of any unit agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as unit agent, governing the units;
if appropriate, a discussion of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences applicable to the units; and
whether the units will be listed on any national securities exchange.
Additionally, in order to enable us to preserve our status as a REIT, we may take certain actions to restrict ownership and transfer of our outstanding securities, including any units. The prospectus supplement related to the offering of any units will specify any additional ownership limitation relating to the units being offered thereby.
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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the accompanying prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Securities issued in global form will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for securities issued in global form, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a book-entry security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities in non-global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form. For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with depositary participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Whether and how the holders contact the indirect holders is up to the holders.
Special Considerations for Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:
how it handles securities payments and notices;
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whether it imposes fees or charges;
how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;
whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;
how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and
if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security held by a depositary that represents one or any other number of individual securities. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the accompanying prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, or DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “— Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued in global form only, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations for Global Securities
As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only in the form of a global security, an investor should be aware of the following:
An investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
An investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe under “—Legal Holders” above;
An investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;
An investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in a global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;
The depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in a global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in a global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;
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The depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in a global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and
Financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in a global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, the global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own name, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
The global security will terminate when any of the following special situations occur:
if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;
if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or
if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and not we or any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
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CERTAIN PROVISIONS OF MARYLAND LAW AND OF OUR CHARTER AND BYLAWS
The following summary of certain provisions of Maryland law and of our charter and bylaws does not purport to be complete and is subject to and qualified in its entirety by reference to our charter and bylaws, which are incorporated herein by reference to the Company’s SEC filings, and to Maryland law. See “Where You Can Find More Information.”
Our Board of Directors
Our board of directors currently consists of seven directors. Our charter and bylaws provide that the number of directors constituting our board of directors may be increased or decreased only by a majority vote of our board of directors, provided that the number of directors may not be decreased to fewer than the minimum number required under the MGCL (which is one), nor increased to more than 15.
Subject to the terms of any class or series of preferred stock, vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by a majority of the remaining directors, even if the remaining directors do not constitute a quorum, and any director elected to fill a vacancy will hold office for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies.
Each of our directors is elected by our stockholders to serve until the next annual meeting of our stockholders and until his or her successor is duly elected and qualifies. Holders of shares of our common stock have no right to cumulative voting in the election of directors. Consequently, the holders of a majority of the outstanding shares of our common stock may elect all of the nominees then standing for election as directors, and the holders of the remaining shares will not be able to elect any directors. Directors are elected by a plurality of all of the votes cast in the election of directors.
Removal of Directors
Subject to the rights of holders of any class or series of preferred stock, our charter provides that a director may be removed only for cause (as defined in our charter) and only by the affirmative vote of a majority of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of directors. This provision, when coupled with the exclusive power of our board of directors to fill vacancies on our board of directors, precludes stockholders from removing incumbent directors (except for cause and upon a substantial affirmative vote) and filling the vacancies created by such removal with their own nominees.
Amendments to Our Charter and Bylaws
Except for those amendments permitted to be made without stockholder approval under Maryland law or our charter, our charter generally may be amended only if the amendment is first declared advisable by our board of directors and thereafter approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Our board of directors has the power to adopt, alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and to make new bylaws. In addition, stockholders may alter or repeal any provision of our bylaws and adopt new bylaws with the approval by a majority of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter except that the stockholders do not have the power to alter the amendment provision of our bylaws without the approval of our board of directors.
Transactions Outside the Ordinary Course of Business
Under the MGCL, a Maryland corporation generally is not entitled to dissolve, merge or consolidate with, or convert into, another entity, sell all or substantially all of its assets or engage in a statutory share exchange unless the action is declared advisable by the board of directors and approved by the affirmative vote of stockholders entitled to cast at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, unless a lesser percentage (but not less than a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter) is specified in the corporation’s charter. Our charter provides that these actions must be approved by a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter.
Appraisal Rights
Stockholders are not entitled to exercise any of the rights of an objecting stockholder provided for in Title 3, Subtitle 2 of the MGCL or any successor statute unless our board of directors determines that such rights apply, with respect to all or any classes or series of stock, to one or more transactions occurring after the date of the determination in connection with which stockholders would otherwise be entitled to exercise such rights.
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Meetings of Stockholders
Pursuant to our bylaws, an annual meeting of our stockholders will be held each year at a date and time and place set by our board of directors. Special meetings of stockholders may be called only upon the request of our board of directors, our president, our chief executive officer or our chair of the board. Subject to the provisions of our bylaws, a special meeting of our stockholders to act on any matter that may properly be brought before a meeting of our stockholders must also be called by our secretary upon the written request of the stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all the votes entitled to be cast on such matter at the meeting and containing the information required by our bylaws. Our secretary will inform the requesting stockholders of the reasonably estimated cost of preparing and delivering the notice of meeting (including our proxy materials), and the requesting stockholder must pay such estimated cost before our secretary is required to prepare and deliver the notice of the special meeting.
Advance Notice for Stockholder Nominations for Directors and Proposals of New Business
Our bylaws provide that with respect to an annual meeting of our stockholders, nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors and the proposal of other business to be considered by our stockholders may be made only (i) pursuant to our notice of the meeting, (ii) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (iii) by any stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (or any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting on such business or in the election of such nominee and has provided notice to us within the time period, and containing the information and other materials, specified in the advance notice provisions of our bylaws.
With respect to special meetings of stockholders, only the business specified in our notice of meeting may be brought before the meeting. Nominations of individuals for election to our board of directors may be made only (i) by or at the direction of our board of directors or (ii) if the meeting has been called for the purpose of electing directors, by any stockholder who was a stockholder of record at the record date set by the board of directors for the purpose of determining stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, at the time of giving the notice required by our bylaws and at the time of the meeting (or any postponement or adjournment thereof), who is entitled to vote at the meeting in the election of each such nominee and who has provided notice to us within the time period, and containing the information and other materials, specified in the advance notice provisions of our bylaws.
The advance notice procedures of our bylaws provide that, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice with respect to director nominations or other proposals for an annual meeting must be delivered to our corporate secretary at our principal executive office not earlier than the 150th day nor later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the 120th day prior to the first anniversary of the date of the proxy statement for our preceding year’s annual meeting. In the event that the date of the annual meeting is advanced or delayed by more than 30 days from the first anniversary of the date of the preceding year’s annual meeting, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be delivered not earlier than the 150th day prior to the date of the annual meeting and not later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Time, on the later of the 120th day prior to the date of the annual meeting, as originally convened, or the tenth day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made.
Restrictions on Ownership of Shares
To maintain our REIT qualification for federal income tax purposes, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (including certain entities treated as individuals under the Internal Revenue Code) during the last half of each taxable year. In addition, at least 100 persons who are independent of us and each other must beneficially own our outstanding shares for at least 335 days per 12-month taxable year or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. We may prohibit certain acquisitions and transfers of shares so as to ensure our continued qualification as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code.
Our charter contains a limitation on ownership that prohibits any individual or entity from directly acquiring beneficial ownership of more than 9.8% in value of our then outstanding shares of capital stock (which includes common stock and any preferred stock we may issue) or more than 9.8% in value or number, whichever is more restrictive, of our then outstanding shares of common stock.
Any attempted transfer of our stock which, if effective, would result in our stock being beneficially owned by fewer than 100 persons will be null and void and the proposed transferee will acquire no rights in such stock. Any
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attempted transfer of our stock, which, if effective, would result in violation of the ownership limits discussed above or in our being “closely held” under Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise failing to maintain our qualification as a REIT, will cause the number of shares of our stock causing the violation (rounded up to the nearest whole share) to be automatically transferred to a trust for the exclusive benefit of one or more charitable beneficiaries designated by us, and the proposed transferee will not acquire any rights in the shares of our stock. If the transfer to the trust would not be effective for any reason to prevent any of the foregoing, the transfer of that number of shares that otherwise would cause a person to violate any of the restrictions described above will be null and void and the proposed transferee will acquire no rights in such shares of our stock. The automatic transfer will be deemed to be effective as of the close of business on the business day, as defined in our charter, prior to the date of the transfer. Shares of our stock held in the trust will be issued and outstanding shares. The proposed transferee will not benefit economically from ownership of any shares of stock held in the trust, will have no rights to dividends and no rights to vote or other rights attributable to the shares of stock held in the trust. The trustee of the trust will have all voting rights and rights to dividends or other distributions with respect to shares held in the trust. These rights will be exercised for the exclusive benefit of the charitable beneficiary. Any dividend or other distribution paid prior to our discovery that shares of stock have been transferred to the trust will be paid by the recipient to the trustee upon demand. Any dividend or other distribution authorized but unpaid will be paid when due to the trustee. Any dividend or distribution paid to the trustee will be held in trust for the charitable beneficiary. Subject to Maryland law, the trustee will have the authority to rescind as void any vote cast by the proposed transferee prior to our discovery that the shares have been transferred to the trust and to recast the vote in accordance with the desires of the trustee acting for the benefit of the charitable beneficiary. However, if we have already taken irreversible corporate action, then the trustee will not have the authority to rescind and recast the vote.
Shares of our stock transferred to the trustee are deemed offered for sale to us, or our designee, at a price per share equal to the lesser of (i) the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares (or, in the case of a devise or gift, the market price at the time of such devise or gift) and (ii) the market price on the date we accept, or our designee accepts, such offer. We may reduce the amount so payable to the trustee by the amount of any distribution that we made to the proposed transferee before we discovered that the shares had been automatically transferred to the trust and that are then owed by the proposed transferee to the trustee as described above, and we may pay the amount of any such reduction to the trustee for distribution to the charitable beneficiary. We have the right to accept such offer until the trustee has sold the shares of our stock held in the trust as discussed below. Upon a sale to us, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold terminates, and the trustee must distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and must distribute any distributions held by the trustee with respect to such shares to the charitable beneficiary.
Within 20 days of receiving notice from us that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the trustee will sell the shares to a person designated by the trustee, whose ownership of the shares will not violate the above ownership limitations. Upon the sale, the interest of the charitable beneficiary in the shares sold will terminate and the trustee will distribute the net proceeds of the sale to the proposed transferee and to the charitable beneficiary as follows. The proposed transferee will receive the lesser of (i) the price paid by the proposed transferee for the shares or, if the proposed transferee did not give value for the shares in connection with the event causing the shares to be held in the trust, such as a gift, devise or other similar transaction, the market price, as defined in our charter, of the shares on the day of the event causing the shares to be held in the trust and (ii) the price per share received by the trustee (net of any commissions or other expenses of sale) from the sale or other disposition of the shares. The trustee may reduce the amount payable to the proposed transferee by the amount of dividends and other distributions which have been paid to the proposed transferee and are owed by the proposed transferor to the transferee. Any net sale proceeds in excess of the amount payable per share to the proposed transferee will be paid immediately to the charitable beneficiary. If, prior to our discovery that shares of our stock have been transferred to the trust, the shares are sold by the proposed transferee, then the shares shall be deemed to have been sold on behalf of the trust and, to the extent that the proposed transferee received an amount for the shares that exceeds the amount he was entitled to receive, the excess shall be paid to the trustee upon demand.
Any person who acquires or attempts or intends to acquire shares of our stock in violation of the foregoing restriction or who owns shares of our stock that were transferred to any such trust is required to give immediate written notice to us of such event or, in the case of a proposed or attempted transaction, at least 15 days’ prior written notice. Such person shall provide to us such other information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of such transfer on our status as a REIT.
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The foregoing restrictions continue to apply until our board of directors determines it is no longer in our best interest to continue to qualify as a REIT or that compliance with the foregoing restrictions is no longer required for REIT qualification.
Our board of directors, in its sole discretion, may exempt a person (prospectively or retroactively) from the limitation on ownership of more than 9.8% in value of our then outstanding shares of capital stock (which includes common stock and any preferred stock we may issue) or more than 9.8% in value or number, whichever is more restrictive, of our then outstanding shares of common stock. However, the board of directors may not exempt any person whose ownership of our outstanding stock would result in our being “closely held” within the meaning of Section 856(h) of the Internal Revenue Code or otherwise would result in our failure to maintain our qualification as a REIT. In order to be considered by our board of directors for exemption, a person also must not own, directly or indirectly, an interest in our tenant (or a tenant of any entity which we own or control) that would cause us to own, directly or indirectly, more than a 9.9% interest in the tenant. Any violation or attempted violation of any such representations or undertakings will result in such stockholder’s shares of stock being automatically transferred to a charitable trust. As a condition of granting the waiver or establishing the excepted holder limit, our board of directors may require an opinion of counsel or a ruling from the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”), in either case in form and substance satisfactory to our board of directors, in its sole discretion, in order to determine or ensure our status as a REIT and such representations and undertakings from the person requesting the exception as our board of directors may require in its sole discretion to make the determinations above.
Every owner of more than 5% of the outstanding shares of our stock during any taxable year, or such lower percentage as required by the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations promulgated thereunder, within 30 days after the end of each taxable year, is required to give us written notice, stating his or her name and address, the number of shares of our stock which he or she beneficially owns and a description of the manner in which the shares are held. Each such owner shall provide us with such additional information as we may request in order to determine the effect, if any, of its beneficial ownership on our status as a REIT and to ensure compliance with the ownership limits. In addition, each stockholder shall, upon demand, be required to provide us with such information as we may request in order to determine our status as a REIT and to comply with the requirements of any taxing authority or governmental authority or to determine such compliance. These restrictions could delay, defer or prevent a transaction or change in control of our company that might involve a premium price for our shares of Class C Common Stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.
Business Combinations
Under the MGCL, certain business combinations between a Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder or an affiliate of an interested stockholder are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. An “interested stockholder” is defined as:
any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10.0% or more of the voting power of the corporation’s outstanding voting stock; or
an affiliate or associate of the corporation who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10.0% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding stock of the corporation.
A person is not an interested stockholder under the statute if the board of directors approved in advance the transaction by which he otherwise would have become an interested stockholder. However, in approving a transaction, the board of directors may provide that its approval is subject to compliance, at or after the time of approval, with any terms and conditions determined by the board of directors.
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After the five-year prohibition, any business combination between the Maryland corporation and an interested stockholder generally must be recommended by the board of directors of the corporation and approved by the affirmative vote of at least
80.0% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of outstanding shares of voting stock of the corporation; and
two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of voting stock of the corporation other than shares of stock held by the interested stockholder with whom or with whose affiliate the business combination is to be effected or held by an affiliate or associate of the interested stockholder.
These super-majority vote requirements do not apply if the corporation’s common stockholders receive a minimum price, as defined under Maryland law, for their shares of our common stock in the form of cash or other consideration in the same form as previously paid by the interested stockholder for its shares of our common stock.
The statute permits various exemptions from its provisions, including business combinations that are exempted by the board of directors before the time that the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder.
Control Share Acquisitions
The MGCL provides that a holder of control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition has no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of stockholders entitled to cast two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares of stock owned by the acquiror, by officers or by employees who are directors of the corporation are excluded from shares of stock entitled to vote on the matter. “Control shares” are voting shares of stock which, if aggregated with all other shares of stock owned by the acquiror or in respect of which the acquiror is able to exercise or direct the exercise of voting power (except solely by virtue of a revocable proxy), would entitle the acquiror to exercise voting power in electing directors within one of the following ranges of voting power:
one-tenth or more but less than one-third;
one-third or more but less than a majority; or
a majority or more of all voting power.
Control shares do not include shares of stock the acquiring person is then entitled to vote as a result of having previously obtained stockholder approval or shares acquired directly from the corporation. A “control share acquisition” means the acquisition of issued and outstanding control shares subject to certain exceptions.
A person who has made or proposes to make a control share acquisition may compel our board of directors to call a special meeting of stockholders to be held within 50 days of the demand to consider the voting rights of the shares of stock. The right to compel the calling of a special meeting is subject to the satisfaction of certain conditions, including an undertaking to pay the expenses of the meeting. If no request for a meeting is made, the corporation may itself present the question at any stockholders meeting.
If voting rights are not approved at the meeting or if the acquiring person does not deliver an “acquiring person statement” as required by the statute, then the corporation may redeem for fair value any or all of the control shares, except those for which voting rights have previously been approved. The right of the corporation to redeem control shares is subject to certain conditions and limitations. Fair value is determined, without regard to the absence of voting rights for the control shares, as of the date of any meeting of stockholders at which the voting rights of the shares of stock are considered and not approved or, if no such meeting is held, as of the date of the last control share acquisition by the acquiror. If voting rights for control shares are approved at a stockholders’ meeting and the acquiror becomes entitled to vote a majority of the shares of stock entitled to vote, all other stockholders may exercise appraisal rights. The fair value of the shares of stock as determined for purposes of appraisal rights may not be less than the highest price per share paid by the acquiror in the control share acquisition.
The control share acquisition statute does not apply (1) to shares of stock acquired in a merger, consolidation or share exchange if the corporation is a party to the transaction, or (2) to acquisitions approved or exempted by the charter or bylaws of the corporation.
Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions of shares of our stock by any person. This bylaw provision may be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.
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Subtitle 8
Subtitle 8 of Title 3 of the MGCL (“Subtitle 8”) permits a Maryland corporation with a class of equity securities registered under the Exchange Act and at least three independent directors to elect to be subject, by provision in its charter or bylaws or a resolution of its board of directors and notwithstanding any contrary provision in the charter or bylaws, to any or all of five provisions:
a classified board,
a two-thirds vote requirement for removing a director,
a requirement that the number of directors be fixed only by vote of the directors,
a requirement that a vacancy on the board be filled only by the remaining directors and for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred, and
a majority requirement for the calling of a special meeting of stockholders.
Pursuant to Subtitle 8, we have elected to provide that vacancies on our board of directors may be filled only by the remaining directors and that directors elected by the board of directors to fill vacancies will serve for the remainder of the full term of the directorship in which the vacancy occurred. Through provisions in our charter and bylaws unrelated to Subtitle 8, we already (i) vest in our board of directors the exclusive power to fix the number of directorships and (ii) require, unless called by our board of directors, our president, our chief executive officer or our chair of the board, the written request of stockholders entitled to cast a majority of all of the votes entitled to be cast at such a meeting to call a special meeting. We have not elected to be subject to any of the other provisions described above, but our charter does not prohibit our board of directors from opting into any of these provisions in the future.
Tender Offers
Our charter requires that any tender offer, including any “mini-tender” offer, must comply with all of the requirements of Regulation 14D of the Exchange Act. The offering person must provide us notice of the tender offer at least 10 business days before initiating the tender offer. If the offering person does not comply with these requirements, our stockholders will be prohibited from transferring any shares to such non-complying person unless they first offered such shares to us at the tender offer price offered by the non-complying person. In addition, the non-complying person shall be responsible for all of our expenses in connection with that person’s noncompliance. This provision of our charter may discourage a person from initiating a tender offer for our shares and prevent you from receiving a premium to your purchase price for your shares in such a transaction.
Exclusive Forum
Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland, or, if that court does not have jurisdiction, the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, Northern Division, will be the sole and absolute forum for (a) any Internal Corporate Claim, as such term is defined in the MGCL, (b) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf other than actions arising under the federal securities laws, (c) any action asserting a claim of breach of any duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or to our stockholders, (d) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees arising pursuant to any provision of the MGCL or our charter or bylaws or (e) any action asserting a claim against us or any of our directors, officers or other employees that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. None of the foregoing actions, claims or proceedings may be brought in any court sitting out of the State of Maryland unless we consent in writing to such court. These choice of forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or any other claim for which federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Furthermore, our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any claim arising under the Securities Act.
Indemnification and Limitation of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability
Maryland law permits a Maryland corporation to include in its charter a provision limiting the liability of its directors and officers to the corporation and its stockholders for money damages, except for liability resulting from
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(i) actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services or (ii) active and deliberate dishonesty that is established by a final judgment and that is material to the cause of action. Our charter contains a provision that eliminates the liability of our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law.
The MGCL requires us (unless our charter provides otherwise, which our charter does not) to indemnify a director or officer who has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in the defense of any proceeding to which he or she is made a party by reason of his or her service in that capacity. The MGCL permits us to indemnify our present and former directors and officers, among others, against judgments, penalties, fines, settlements and reasonable expenses actually incurred by them in connection with any proceeding to which they may be made or threatened to be made a party by reason of their service in those or other capacities unless it is established that:
the act or omission of the director or officer was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and (a) was committed in bad faith or (b) was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty;
the director or officer actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services; or
in the case of any criminal proceeding, the director or officer had reasonable cause to believe that the act or omission was unlawful.
Under the MGCL, we may not indemnify a director or officer in a suit by us or in our right in which the director or officer was adjudged liable to us or in a suit in which the director or officer was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. A court may order indemnification if it determines that the director or officer is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnification, even though the director or officer did not meet the prescribed standard of conduct or was adjudged liable on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received. However, indemnification for an adverse judgment in a suit by us or in our right, or for a judgment of liability on the basis that personal benefit was improperly received, is limited to expenses.
In addition, the MGCL permits us to advance reasonable expenses to a director or officer upon our receipt of:
a written affirmation by the director or officer of his or her good faith belief that he or she has met the standard of conduct necessary for indemnification by us; and
a written undertaking by or on behalf of the director or officer to repay the amount paid or reimbursed by us if it is ultimately determined that the director or officer did not meet the standard of conduct.
Our charter obligates us, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law in effect from time to time, to indemnify and, without requiring a preliminary determination of the ultimate entitlement to indemnification, pay or reimburse reasonable expenses in advance of final disposition of a proceeding to:
any present or former director or officer who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, a proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity; or
any individual who, while a director or officer of the Company and at our request, serves or has served as a director, officer, partner, member, manager or trustee of another corporation, REIT, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or any other enterprise and who is made or threatened to be made a party to, or witness in, the proceeding by reason of his or her service in that capacity.
Our charter also permits us to indemnify and advance expenses to any person who served a predecessor of the Company in any of the capacities described above and to any employee or agent of the Company or a predecessor of the Company.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with our current directors and executive officers that provide for indemnification to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law against all expenses and liabilities. These indemnification agreements also provide that upon an application for indemnity by an executive officer or director to a court of appropriate jurisdiction, such court may order us to indemnify such executive officer or director.
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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS
The following is a summary of the material U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our securities. For purposes of this section, references to “Modiv,” “we,” “our” and “us” mean only Modiv Inc. and not its subsidiaries or other lower-tier entities, except as otherwise indicated. This summary is based upon the Internal Revenue Code, the regulations promulgated by the U.S. Treasury Department, rulings and other administrative pronouncements issued by the IRS, and judicial decisions, all as currently in effect, and all of which are subject to differing interpretations or to change, possibly with retroactive effect. No assurance can be given that the IRS would not assert, or that a court would not sustain, a position contrary to any of the tax consequences described below. We have not sought and do not currently expect to seek an advance ruling from the IRS regarding any matter discussed in this prospectus. The summary is also based upon the assumption that we will operate Modiv and its subsidiaries and affiliated entities in accordance with their applicable organizational documents. This summary is for general informational purposes only and is not tax advice. It does not discuss any state, local or non-U.S. tax consequences relevant to us or an investment in any securities offered by this prospectus and it does not purport to discuss all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be important to a particular investor in light of its investment or tax circumstances or to investors subject to special tax rules, such as:
financial institutions;
insurance companies;
real estate investment trusts;
regulated investment companies;
dealers in securities;
traders in securities that elect to use a mark-to market method of accounting for their securities holdings;
partnerships, other pass-through entities, trusts and estates;
persons who hold our stock on behalf of other persons as nominees;
persons who receive our stock through the exercise of employee stock options or otherwise as compensation;
persons holding our stock as part of a “straddle,” “hedge,” “conversion transaction,” “constructive ownership transaction,” “synthetic security” or other integrated investment;
Subchapter “S” corporations;
and, except to the extent discussed below:
tax-exempt organizations; and
foreign investors.
This summary assumes that investors will hold their shares as a capital asset, which generally means as property held for investment.
For the purposes of this summary, a U.S. person is a beneficial owner of our shares who for U.S. federal income tax purposes is:
a citizen or resident of the United States;
a corporation (including an entity treated as corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes) created or organized under the laws of the United States or of a political subdivision thereof (including the District of Columbia);
an estate whose income is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or
any trust if (1) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of such trust and one or more U.S. persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (2) it has a valid election in place to be treated as a U.S. person.
For the purposes of this summary, a U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our shares who is a U.S. person. A tax exempt organization is a U.S. person who is exempt from U.S. federal income tax under Section 401(a) or
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501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code. For the purposes of this summary, a non-U.S. person is a beneficial owner of our shares who is a nonresident alien individual or a non-U.S. corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and a non-U.S. stockholder is a beneficial owner of our shares who is a non-U.S. person. The term “corporation” includes any entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the term “partnership” includes any entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.
The federal income tax treatment of holders of our shares depends in some instances on determinations of fact and interpretations of complex provisions of U.S. federal income tax law for which no clear precedent or authority may be available. In addition, the tax consequences to any particular stockholder of holding our shares will depend on the stockholder’s particular tax circumstances.
YOU ARE URGED TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE U.S. FEDERAL, STATE, LOCAL, INCOME AND NON-U.S. INCOME AND OTHER TAX CONSEQUENCES TO YOU, IN LIGHT OF YOUR PARTICULAR INVESTMENT OR TAX CIRCUMSTANCES, OF ACQUIRING, HOLDING, AND DISPOSING OF OUR SHARES.
Taxation of Modiv Inc.
We elected to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code, commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2016.
In the opinion of Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP, we have been organized in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code beginning with our taxable year ended December 31, 2016, and our current and proposed method of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code. Such opinion is based on various assumptions relating to our organization and proposed operation and is conditioned upon fact-based representations and covenants made by our management regarding our organization, assets, and income, and the past, present and future conduct of our business operations. While we believe that we are organized and intend to operate so that we will qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances or applicable law, no assurance can be given by us or Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP that we will so qualify for any particular year. The opinion was expressed as of the date issued and does not cover subsequent periods.
Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP has no obligation to advise us or our stockholders of any subsequent change in the matters stated, represented or assumed, or of any subsequent change in the applicable law. You should be aware that opinions of counsel are not binding on the IRS, and no assurance can be given that the IRS will not challenge the conclusions set forth in such opinions with respect to our satisfaction of the REIT requirements. Qualification and taxation as a REIT depends on our ability to meet, on a continuing basis, through actual results of operations, distribution levels, diversity of share ownership and various qualification requirements imposed upon REITs by the Internal Revenue Code, discussed below. In addition, our ability to qualify as a REIT may depend in part upon the operating results, organizational structure and entity classification for U.S. federal income tax purposes of certain entities in which we invest, which we may not control. Our ability to qualify as a REIT also requires that we satisfy certain asset and income tests, some of which depend upon the fair market values of assets directly or indirectly owned by us or which serve as security for loans made by us. Such values may not be susceptible to a precise determination. Accordingly, no assurance can be given that the actual results of our operations for any taxable year will satisfy the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT.
Taxation of REITs in General
Provided that we qualify as a REIT, generally we will be entitled to a deduction for distributions that we pay to our stockholders and therefore will not be subject to federal corporate income tax on our taxable income that is currently distributed to our stockholders. This treatment substantially eliminates the “double taxation” at the corporate and stockholder levels that generally results from investment in a corporation. In general, the income that we generate is taxed only at the stockholder level upon distribution to our stockholders.
Any net operating losses and other tax attributes generally do not pass through to our stockholders, subject to special rules for certain items such as the capital gains that we recognize. See “Taxation of Stockholders.”
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Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, however, we will be subject to U.S. federal income taxation as follows:
We will be taxed at regular corporate rates on any undistributed taxable income, including undistributed net capital gains.
If we have net income from prohibited transactions, which are, in general, sales or other dispositions of inventory or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, other than foreclosure property, such income will be subject to a 100% tax. See “Prohibited Transactions.”
If we should fail to satisfy the 75% gross income test or the 95% gross income test, as discussed below, but nonetheless maintain our qualification as a REIT because we satisfy other requirements, we will be subject to a 100% tax on an amount based on the magnitude of the failure, as adjusted to reflect the profit margin associated with our gross income.
If we elect to treat property that we acquire in connection with a foreclosure of a mortgage loan or certain leasehold terminations as “foreclosure property,” we may thereby avoid the 100% tax on gain from a resale of that property (if the sale would otherwise constitute a prohibited transaction), but the income from the sale or operation of the property may be subject to corporate income tax at the highest applicable rate.
If we should violate the asset tests (other than certain de minimis violations) or other requirements applicable to REITs, as described below, and yet maintain our qualification as a REIT because there is reasonable cause for the failure and other applicable requirements are met, we may be subject to an excise tax. In that case, the amount of the excise tax will be at least $50,000 per failure and, in the case of certain asset test failures, will be determined as the amount of net income generated by the assets in question multiplied by the highest corporate tax rate if that amount exceeds $50,000 per failure.
If we should fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year; (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year; and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we would be subject to a nondeductible 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (i) the amounts that we actually distributed and (ii) the amounts we retained and upon which we paid income tax at the corporate level.
We may be required to pay monetary penalties to the IRS in certain circumstances, including if we fail to meet record keeping requirements intended to monitor our compliance with rules relating to the composition of a REIT’s stockholders, as described in “ – Requirements for Qualification—General.”
A 100% tax may be imposed on transactions between us and a taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”) (as described below) that do not reflect arm’s-length terms.
If we dispose of an asset acquired by us from a C corporation in a transaction in which we took the C corporation’s tax basis in the asset, we may be subject to tax at the highest regular corporate rate on the appreciation inherent in such asset as of the date of acquisition by us.
We will generally be subject to tax on the portion of any excess inclusion income derived from an investment in residual interests in real estate mortgage investment conduits (“REMICs”) or “taxable mortgage pools” to the extent our shares are held in record name by specified tax exempt organizations not subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income (“UBTI”) or non-U.S. sovereign investors.
The earnings of our subsidiaries, including our TRSs (as discussed below), are subject to federal corporate income tax to the extent that such subsidiaries are subchapter C corporations.
In addition, we and our subsidiaries may be subject to a variety of taxes, including payroll taxes and state and local and foreign income, property and other taxes on our assets and operations. We could also be subject to tax in situations and on transactions not presently contemplated.
Requirements for Qualification—General
The Internal Revenue Code defines a REIT as a corporation, trust or association which has seven main attributes:
(1)
it is managed by one or more trustees or directors;
(2)
its beneficial ownership is evidenced by transferable shares, or by transferable certificates of beneficial interest;
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(3)
it would be taxable as a domestic corporation but for its election to be subject to tax as a REIT;
(4)
it is neither a financial institution nor an insurance company subject to specific provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;
(5)
its beneficial ownership is held by 100 or more persons;
(6)
during the last half of each taxable year, not more than 50% in value of its outstanding stock is owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer “individuals” (as defined in the Internal Revenue Code to include specified tax-exempt entities);
(7)
it elects to be taxed as a REIT, or has made such election for a previous taxable year, and satisfies all relevant filing and other administrative requirements that must be met to elect and maintain REIT qualification; and
(8)
it meets other tests described below, including with respect to the nature of its income and assets.
The Internal Revenue Code provides that conditions (1) through (4) must be met during the entire taxable year, and that condition (5) must be met during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate part of a shorter taxable year. Conditions (5) and (6) need not be met during a corporation’s initial tax year as a REIT.
We believe that we have, and will continue to have as a result of the issuance of stock in prior offerings, sufficient diversity of ownership to satisfy conditions (5) and (6). In addition, our charter provides restrictions regarding the ownership and transfer of our shares, which are intended to assist us in satisfying and continuing to satisfy the share ownership requirements described in conditions (5) and (6) above. The provisions of our charter restricting the ownership and transfer of our stock are described in “Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws—Restrictions on Ownership of Shares.”
To monitor compliance with the share ownership requirements, we generally are required to maintain records regarding the actual ownership of our shares. To do so, we must demand written statements each year from the record holders of significant percentages of our stock pursuant to which the record holders must disclose the actual owners of the shares (i.e., the persons required to include our distributions in their gross income). We must maintain a list of those persons failing or refusing to comply with this demand as part of our records. We could be subject to monetary penalties if we fail to comply with these record-keeping requirements. If you fail or refuse to comply with the demands, you will be required by Treasury regulations to submit a statement with your tax return disclosing your actual ownership of our shares and other information.
In addition, a corporation generally may not elect to become a REIT unless its taxable year is the calendar year. We have adopted December 31 as our year-end, and thereby satisfy this requirement.
The Internal Revenue Code provides relief from violations of the REIT gross income requirements, as described under Income Tests, in cases where a violation is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect, and other requirements are met, including the payment of a penalty tax that is based upon the magnitude of the violation. In addition, certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code extend similar relief in the case of certain violations of the REIT asset requirements (See “Asset Tests”) and other REIT requirements, again provided that the violation is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, and other conditions are met, including the payment of a penalty tax. If we fail to satisfy any of the various REIT requirements, there can be no assurance that these relief provisions would be available to enable us to maintain our qualification as a REIT, and, if such relief provisions are available, the amount of any resultant penalty tax could be substantial.
Effect of Subsidiary Entities
Ownership of Partnership Interests. In addition to our Operating Partnership, we may invest in assets through joint ventures, partnerships and other co-ownership arrangements. Such non-corporate entities would generally be organized as limited liability companies, partnerships or trusts and would be treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The following is a summary of the U.S. federal income tax consequences of any investment by us in a property through a partnership or other non-corporate entity.
In general, for partnerships in which we invest, we are required to take into account our allocable share of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit for purposes of the various REIT gross income tests, and in the computation of our REIT taxable income and U.S. federal income tax liability. We will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets in the partnership for purposes of certain REIT asset tests. Thus, our proportionate share of the
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assets and items of income of our Operating Partnership, including our Operating Partnership’s share of the assets, liabilities and items of income of any subsidiary partnership (or other entity treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes) in which our Operating Partnership holds an interest, will be treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income for purposes of applying the REIT income and asset tests. There is no guarantee that such allocable share of income and assets will be qualified for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. Further, there can be no assurance that distributions from a partnership will be sufficient to pay the tax liabilities resulting from an investment in such partnership.
Disregarded Subsidiaries. If we own a corporate subsidiary that is a qualified REIT subsidiary, that subsidiary is generally disregarded for federal income tax purposes, and all of the subsidiary’s assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit are treated as our assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit, including for purposes of the gross income and asset tests applicable to REITs. A qualified REIT subsidiary is any corporation, other than a TRS (as described below), that is directly or indirectly wholly owned by a REIT. Other entities that are wholly owned by us, including single member limited liability companies that have not elected to be taxed as corporations for federal income tax purposes, are also generally disregarded as separate entities for federal income tax purposes, including for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests. Disregarded subsidiaries, along with any partnerships in which we hold an equity interest, are sometimes referred to herein as “pass-through subsidiaries.”
In the event that a disregarded subsidiary of ours ceases to be wholly owned—for example, if any equity interest in the subsidiary is acquired by a person other than us or another disregarded subsidiary of ours—the subsidiary’s separate existence would no longer be disregarded for federal income tax purposes. Instead, the subsidiary would have multiple owners and would be treated as either a partnership or a taxable corporation. Such an event could, depending on the circumstances, adversely affect our ability to satisfy the various asset and gross income requirements applicable to REITs, including the requirement that REITs generally may not own, directly or indirectly, more than 10% of the securities of another corporation. See “Asset Tests” and “Income Tests.”
Taxable Corporate Subsidiaries. We have jointly elected with two of our wholly owned subsidiaries to treat such subsidiaries as taxable REIT subsidiaries, or TRSs. A REIT is permitted to own up to 100% of the stock of one or more TRSs. A domestic TRS is a fully taxable corporation that may earn income that would not be qualifying income if earned directly by the parent REIT. The subsidiary and the REIT must jointly elect to treat the subsidiary as a TRS. A corporation with respect to which a TRS directly or indirectly owns more than 35% of the voting power or value of the stock will automatically be treated as a TRS. We generally may not own more than 10% of the securities of a taxable corporation, as measured by voting power or value, unless we and such corporation elect to treat such corporation as a TRS. Overall, no more than 20% of the value of a REIT’s assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs.
The separate existence of a TRS or other taxable corporation is not ignored for federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, a TRS or other taxable corporation generally would be subject to corporate income tax on its earnings, which may reduce the cash flow that we and our subsidiaries generate in the aggregate and may reduce our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.
We are not treated as holding the assets of a TRS or other taxable subsidiary corporation or as receiving any income that the subsidiary earns. Rather, the stock issued by a taxable subsidiary to us is an asset in our hands, and we treat the distributions paid to us from such taxable subsidiary, if any, as income. This treatment can affect our income and asset test calculations, as described below. Because we do not include the assets and income of TRSs or other taxable subsidiary corporations in determining our compliance with the REIT requirements, we may use such entities to undertake indirectly activities that the REIT rules might otherwise preclude us from doing directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. For example, we may use TRSs or other taxable subsidiary corporations to conduct activities that give rise to certain categories of income such as management fees or activities that would be treated in our hands as prohibited transactions. In addition, we will be subject to a 100% tax on the amounts of any rents from real property, deductions, or excess interest received from a TRS that would be reduced through reapportionment under the Internal Revenue Code in order to more clearly reflect the income of the TRS.
Income Tests
In order to qualify as a REIT, we must satisfy two gross income requirements on an annual basis. First, at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding gross income from sales of inventory or dealer property in “prohibited transactions,” generally must be derived from investments relating to real property or mortgages on real property, including interest income derived from mortgage loans secured by real property (including certain types
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of mortgage-backed securities), “rents from real property,” distributions received from other REITs and gains from the sale of real estate assets, as well as specified income from temporary investments. Second, at least 95% of our gross income in each taxable year, excluding gross income from prohibited transactions and certain hedging transactions, must be derived from some combination of such income from investments in real property (i.e., income that qualifies under the 75% income test described above), as well as other distributions, interest and gain from the sale or disposition of stock or securities, which need not have any relation to real property.
Interest income constitutes qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% income test (as described above) to the extent that the obligation upon which such interest is paid is secured by a mortgage on real property or an interest in real property. If we receive interest income with respect to a mortgage loan that is secured by both real property and other property, and the highest principal amount of the loan outstanding during a taxable year exceeds the fair market value of the real property on the date that we acquired or originated the mortgage loan, the interest income will be apportioned between the real property and the other collateral, and our income from the arrangement will qualify for purposes of the 75% income test only to the extent that the interest is allocable to the real property. Even if a loan is not secured by real property, or is under secured, the income that it generates may nonetheless qualify for purposes of the 95% income test.
To the extent that the terms of a loan provide for contingent interest that is based on the cash proceeds realized upon the sale of the property securing the loan (which we refer to as a shared appreciation provision), income attributable to the participation feature will be treated as gain from sale of the underlying property, which generally will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 75% and 95% gross income tests provided that the real property is not held as inventory or dealer property or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. To the extent that we derive interest income from a mortgage loan or income from the rental of real property (discussed below) where all or a portion of the amount of interest or rental income payable is contingent, such income generally will qualify for purposes of the gross income tests only if it is based upon the gross receipts or sales and not on the net income or profits of the borrower or lessee. This limitation does not apply, however, where the borrower or lessee leases substantially all of its interest in the property to tenants or subtenants to the extent that the rental income derived by the borrower or lessee, as the case may be, would qualify as rents from real property had we earned the income directly.
We and our subsidiaries may invest in mezzanine loans, which are loans secured by equity interests in an entity that directly or indirectly owns real property, rather than by a direct mortgage of the real property. The IRS has issued Revenue Procedure 2003-65, which provides a safe harbor applicable to mezzanine loans. Under the Revenue Procedure, if a mezzanine loan meets each of the requirements contained in the Revenue Procedure, (1) the mezzanine loan will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the asset tests described below and (2) interest derived from the mezzanine loan will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the 75% income test. Although the Revenue Procedure provides a safe harbor on which taxpayers may rely, it does not prescribe rules of substantive tax law. We intend to structure any investments in mezzanine loans in a manner that generally complies with the various requirements applicable to our qualification as a REIT. However, to the extent that any of our mezzanine loans do not meet all safe harbor requirements set forth in the Revenue Procedure, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not challenge the tax treatment of these loans.
Rents received by us will qualify as “rents from real property” in satisfying the gross income requirements described above only if several conditions are met. If rent is partly attributable to personal property leased in connection with a lease of real property, the portion of the rent that is attributable to the personal property will not qualify as “rents from real property” unless it constitutes 15% or less of the total rent received under the lease. In addition, the amount of rent must not be based in whole or in part on the income or profits of any person. Amounts received as rent, however, generally will not be excluded from rents from real property solely by reason of being based on fixed percentages of gross receipts or sales. Moreover, for rents received to qualify as “rents from real property,” we generally must not operate or manage the property or furnish or render services to the tenants of such property, other than through an “independent contractor” from which we derive no revenue. We are permitted, however, to perform services that are “usually or customarily rendered” in connection with the rental of space for occupancy only and which are not otherwise considered rendered to the occupant of the property. In addition, we may directly or indirectly provide non-customary services to tenants of our properties without disqualifying all of the rent from the property if the payments for such services do not exceed 1% of the total gross income from the properties. For purposes of this test, we are deemed to have received income from such non-customary services in an amount at least 150% of the direct cost of providing the services. Moreover, we are generally permitted to provide services
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to tenants or others through a TRS without disqualifying the rental income received from tenants for purposes of the income tests. Also, rental income will qualify as rents from real property only to the extent that we do not directly or constructively hold a 10% or greater interest, as measured by vote or value, in the lessee’s equity.
We may directly or indirectly receive distributions from TRSs or other corporations that are not REITs or qualified REIT subsidiaries. These distributions generally are treated as dividend income to the extent of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation. Such distributions will generally constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 95% gross income test, but not for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any distributions that we receive from a REIT, however, will be qualifying income for purposes of both the 95% and 75% income tests.
We and our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we entered into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate, inflation and/or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in Treasury regulations before the closing of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, and (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests which is clearly identified as such before the closing of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT.
If we fail to satisfy one or both of the 75% or 95% gross income tests for any taxable year, we may still qualify as a REIT for such year if we are entitled to relief under applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. These relief provisions will be generally available if (1) our failure to meet these tests was due to reasonable cause and not due to willful neglect and (2) following our identification of the failure to meet the 75% or 95% gross income test for any taxable year, we file a schedule with the IRS setting forth each item of our gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income test for such taxable year in accordance with Treasury regulations yet to be issued. It is not possible to state whether we would be entitled to the benefit of these relief provisions in all circumstances. If these relief provisions are inapplicable to a particular set of circumstances, we will not qualify as a REIT. As discussed above under Taxation of REITs in General, even where these relief provisions apply, the Internal Revenue Code imposes a tax based upon the amount by which we fail to satisfy the particular gross income test.
Income derived from certain types of temporary stock and debt investments made with the proceeds of an offering, not otherwise treated as qualifying income for the 75% gross income test, generally will nonetheless constitute qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test for the year following such offering. More specifically, qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test includes “qualified temporary investment income,” which generally means any income that is attributable to stock or a debt instrument, is attributable to the temporary investment of new equity capital and certain debt capital, and is received or accrued during the one-year period beginning on the date on which the REIT receives such new capital.
Asset Tests
At the close of each calendar quarter, we must also satisfy five tests relating to the nature of our assets. First, at least 75% of the value of our total assets must be represented by some combination of “real estate assets,” cash, cash items, U.S. government securities and, under some circumstances, stock or debt instruments purchased with new capital. For this purpose, real estate assets include interests in real property, such as land, buildings, leasehold interests in real property, stock of other corporations that qualify as REITs and some kinds of mortgage-backed securities, mortgage loans and debt instruments (whether or not secured by real property) that are issued by a “publicly-offered REIT” (i.e., a REIT that is required to file annual periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act). Assets that do not qualify for purposes of the 75% test are subject to the additional asset tests described below.
Second, the value of any one issuer’s securities that we own may not exceed 5% of the value of our total assets.
Third, we may not own more than 10% of any one issuer’s outstanding securities, as measured by either voting power or value. The 5% and 10% asset tests do not apply to securities of TRSs and qualified REIT subsidiaries and
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the 10% asset test does not apply to “straight debt” having specified characteristics and to certain other securities described below. Solely for purposes of the 10% asset test, the determination of our interest in the assets of a partnership or limited liability company in which we own an interest will be based on our proportionate interest in any securities issued by the partnership or limited liability company, excluding for this purpose certain securities described in the Internal Revenue Code.
Fourth, the aggregate value of all securities of taxable REIT subsidiaries that we hold may not exceed 20% of the value of our total assets.
Fifth, no more than 25% of the total value of our assets may be represented by “nonqualified publicly-offered REIT debt instruments” (i.e., real estate assets that would cease to be real estate assets if debt instruments issued by publicly-offered REITs were not included in the definition of real estate assets).
Notwithstanding the general rule, as noted above, that for purposes of the REIT income and asset tests we are treated as owning our proportionate share of the underlying assets of a subsidiary partnership, if we hold indebtedness issued by a partnership, the indebtedness will be subject to, and may cause a violation of, the asset tests unless the indebtedness is a qualifying mortgage asset or other conditions are met. Similarly, although stock of another REIT is a qualifying asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, any non-mortgage debt that is issued by another REIT may not so qualify (such debt, however, will not be treated as “securities” for purposes of the 10% asset test, as explained below).
Certain relief provisions are available to REITs to satisfy the asset requirements or to maintain REIT qualification notwithstanding certain violations of the asset and other requirements. One such provision allows a REIT which fails one or more of the asset requirements to nevertheless maintain its REIT qualification if (1) the REIT provides the IRS with a description of each asset causing the failure; (2) the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect; (3) the REIT pays a tax equal to the greater of (a) $50,000 per failure and (b) the product of the net income generated by the assets that caused the failure multiplied by the highest applicable corporate tax rate (currently 21%); and (4) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or otherwise satisfies the relevant asset tests within that time frame.
In the case of de minimis violations of the 10% and 5% asset tests, a REIT may maintain its qualification despite a violation of such requirements if (1) the value of the assets causing the violation does not exceed the lesser of 1% of the REIT’s total assets and $10,000,000, and (2) the REIT either disposes of the assets causing the failure within six months after the last day of the quarter in which it identifies the failure, or the relevant tests are otherwise satisfied within that time frame.
Certain securities will not cause a violation of the 10% asset test described above. Such securities include instruments that constitute “straight debt,” which includes, among other things, securities having certain contingency features. A security does not qualify as “straight debt” where a REIT (or a controlled TRS of the REIT) owns other securities of the same issuer which do not qualify as straight debt, unless the value of those other securities constitute, in the aggregate, 1% or less of the total value of that issuer’s outstanding securities. In addition to straight debt, the Internal Revenue Code provides that certain other securities will not violate the 10% asset test. Such securities include (1) any loan made to an individual or an estate; (2) certain rental agreements pursuant to which one or more payments are to be made in subsequent years (other than agreements between a REIT and certain persons related to the REIT under attribution rules); (3) any obligation to pay rents from real property; (4) securities issued by governmental entities that are not dependent in whole or in part on the profits of (or payments made by) a non-governmental entity; (5) any security (including debt securities) issued by another REIT; and (6) any debt instrument issued by a partnership if the partnership’s income is of a nature that it would satisfy the 75% gross income test described above under Income Tests. In applying the 10% asset test, a debt security issued by a partnership is not taken into account to the extent, if any, of the REIT’s proportionate interest in the equity and certain debt securities issued by that partnership.
No independent appraisals will be obtained to support our conclusions as to the value of our total assets or the value of any particular security or securities. Moreover, values of some assets, including instruments issued in securitization transactions, may not be susceptible to a precise determination, and values are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, the proper classification of an instrument as debt or equity for federal income tax purposes may be uncertain in some circumstances, which could affect the application of the REIT asset requirements. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that the IRS will not contend that our interests in our subsidiaries or in the securities of other issuers will not cause a violation of the REIT asset tests. If we should fail to satisfy the asset tests at the end
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of a calendar quarter, such a failure would not cause us to lose our REIT qualification if we (1) satisfied the asset tests at the close of the preceding calendar quarter and (2) the discrepancy between the value of our assets and the asset requirements was not wholly or partly caused by an acquisition of non-qualifying assets, but instead arose from changes in the market value of our assets. If the condition described in (2) were not satisfied, we still could avoid disqualification by eliminating any discrepancy within 30 days after the close of the calendar quarter in which it arose or by making use of relief provisions described below.
Annual Distribution Requirements
In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to make distributions, other than capital gain distributions, to our stockholders in an amount at least equal to:
(a)
The sum of (i) 90% of our “REIT taxable income,” computed without regard to our net capital gains and the dividends-paid deduction and (ii) 90% of the net income (after tax) if any from foreclosure property, minus
(b)
the sum of specified items of non-cash income.
In addition, if we were to recognize “built-in-gain” (as defined below) on disposition of any assets acquired from a “C” corporation in a transaction in which our basis in the assets was determined by reference to the “C” corporation’s basis (for instance, if the assets were acquired in a tax-free reorganization), we would be required to distribute at least 90% of the built-in-gain recognized net of the tax we would pay on such gain. “Built-in-gain” is the excess of (a) the fair market value of an asset (measured at the time of acquisition) over (b) the basis of the asset (measured at the time of acquisition).
We generally must make these distributions in the taxable year to which they relate, or in the following taxable year if declared before we timely file our tax return for the year and if paid with or before the first regular distribution payment after such declaration.
To the extent that we distribute at least 90%, but less than 100%, of our “REIT taxable income,” as adjusted, we will be subject to tax at ordinary corporate tax rates on the retained portion. We may elect to retain, rather than distribute, our net long-term capital gains and pay tax on such gains. In this case, we could elect for our stockholders to include their proportionate shares of such undistributed long-term capital gains in income, and to receive a corresponding credit for their share of the tax that we paid. Our stockholders would then increase their adjusted basis of their stock by the difference between (a) the amounts of capital gain distributions that we designated and that they include in their taxable income minus (b) the tax that we paid on their behalf with respect to that income.
To the extent that we have available net operating losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. Such losses, however, will generally not affect the character, in the hands of our stockholders, of any distributions that are actually made as ordinary dividends or capital gains. See “Taxation of Stockholders — Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.”
If we should fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our REIT ordinary income for such year; (b) 95% of our REIT capital gain net income for such year; and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we would be subject to a non-deductible 4% excise tax on the excess of such required distribution over the sum of (x) the amounts actually distributed plus (y) the amounts of income we retained and on which we have paid corporate income tax.
It is possible that, from time to time, we may not have sufficient cash to meet the distribution requirements due to timing differences between (a) our actual receipt of cash, including receipt of distributions from our subsidiaries and (b) our inclusion of items in income for federal income tax purposes.
In the event that such timing differences occur, in order to meet the distribution requirements, it might be necessary for us to arrange for short-term, or possibly long-term, borrowings, or to pay distributions in the form of taxable in-kind distributions of property.
We may be able to rectify a failure to meet the distribution requirements for a year by paying “deficiency dividends” to stockholders in a later year, which may be included in our deduction for distributions paid for the earlier year. In this case, we may be able to avoid losing REIT qualification or being taxed on amounts distributed as deficiency dividends. We will be required to pay interest and a penalty based on the amount of any deduction taken for deficiency dividends.
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Elective Cash/Stock Dividends
On August 11, 2017, the IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2017-45 authorizing elective cash/stock dividends to be made by publicly-offered REITs (i.e., REITs that are required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act). Pursuant to Revenue Procedure 2017-45, effective for distributions declared on or after August 11, 2017, the IRS will treat the distribution of stock pursuant to an elective cash/stock dividend as a distribution of property under Section 301 of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., a dividend), as long as at least 20% of the total dividend is available in cash and certain other parameters detailed in Revenue Procedure 2017-45 are satisfied.
On November 30, 2021, the IRS issued Revenue Procedure 2021-53, which temporarily reduces (for dividends declared between November 1, 2021 and June 30, 2022), from 20 percent to 10 percent, the amount of cash that a publicly-offered REIT must distribute to stockholders for part stock, part cash distributions to qualify for the dividends-paid deduction.
Failure to Qualify
If we fail to satisfy one or more requirements for REIT qualification other than the gross income or asset tests, we could avoid disqualification if our failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect and we pay a penalty of $50,000 for each such failure. Relief provisions are available for failures of the gross income tests and asset tests, as described above in Income Tests and Asset Tests.
If we fail to qualify for taxation as a REIT in any taxable year, and the relief provisions described above do not apply, we would be subject to tax, including any applicable alternative minimum tax, on our taxable income at regular corporate rates. We cannot deduct distributions to stockholders in any year in which we are not a REIT, nor would we be required to make distributions in such a year. In this situation, to the extent of current and accumulated earnings and profits, distributions to U.S. stockholders (as defined below) that are individuals, trusts and estates will generally be taxable at capital gains rates. In addition, subject to the limitations of the Internal Revenue Code, corporate distributees may be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Unless we are entitled to relief under specific statutory provisions, we would also be disqualified from re-electing to be taxed as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year during which we lost qualification. It is not possible to state whether, in all circumstances, we would be entitled to this statutory relief.
Excess Inclusion Income
If we directly or indirectly acquire a residual interest in certain mortgage loan securitization structures (i.e., a “taxable mortgage pool” or a residual interest in an REMIC), a portion of our income from such arrangements may be treated as “excess inclusion income.” We are required to allocate any excess inclusion income to our stockholders in proportion to their dividends. We would be subject to U.S. corporate tax to the extent of any excess inclusion income from the REMIC residual interest or taxable mortgage pool that is allocable to the percentage of our shares held in record name by “disqualified organizations,” which are generally certain cooperatives, governmental entities and tax-exempt organizations that are exempt from tax on UBTI. Because this tax would be imposed on our company, however, unless we can recover the tax out of distributions to the disqualified organizations, all of our stockholders, including stockholders that are not disqualified organizations, would bear a portion of the tax cost.
Stockholders who are not disqualified organizations will have to treat our dividends as excess inclusion income to the extent of their allocable shares of our excess inclusion income. This income cannot be offset by net operating losses of our stockholders. If the stockholder is a tax-exempt entity and not a disqualified organization, then this income is fully taxable as UBTI under Section 512 of the Internal Revenue Code. If the stockholder is a foreign person, it would be subject to U.S. federal income tax withholding on this income without reduction or exemption pursuant to any otherwise applicable income tax treaty. If the stockholder is a REIT, a regulated investment company, or a RIC, common trust fund or other pass-through entity, the stockholder’s allocable share of our excess inclusion income could be considered excess inclusion income of such entity.
Prohibited Transactions
Net income that we derive from a prohibited transaction is subject to a 100% tax. The term prohibited transaction generally includes a sale or other disposition of property that is held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. We intend to conduct our operations so that no asset that we own (or are treated as
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owning) will be treated as, or as having been, held for sale to customers, and that a sale of any such asset will not be treated as having been in the ordinary course of our business. Whether property is held “primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business” depends on the particular facts and circumstances. No assurance can be given that any property that we sell will not be treated as property held for sale to customers, or that we can comply with certain safe-harbor provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that would prevent such treatment. The 100% tax does not apply to gains from the sale of property that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will potentially be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate rates, nor does the 100% tax apply to sales that qualify for a safe harbor as described in Section 857(b)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Like-Kind Exchanges
We may dispose of properties in transactions intended to qualify as like-kind exchanges under the Internal Revenue Code. Such like-kind exchanges are intended to result in the deferral of gain for U.S. federal income tax purposes. The failure of any such transaction to qualify as a like-kind exchange could require us to pay federal income tax, possibly including the 100% prohibited transaction tax, depending on the facts and circumstances surrounding the particular transaction.
Derivatives and Hedging Transactions
We and our subsidiaries may enter into hedging transactions with respect to interest rate exposure on one or more of our assets or liabilities. Hedging transactions could take a variety of forms, including the use of derivative instruments such as interest rate swap agreements, interest rate cap agreements, options, futures contracts, forward rate agreements or similar financial instruments. Except to the extent provided by Treasury regulations, any income from a hedging transaction we entered into (1) in the normal course of our business primarily to manage risk of interest rate, inflation and/or currency fluctuations with respect to borrowings made or to be made, or ordinary obligations incurred or to be incurred, to acquire or carry real estate assets, which is clearly identified as specified in Treasury regulations before the closing of the day on which it was acquired, originated or entered into, including gain from the sale or disposition of such a transaction, (2) primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income or gain that would be qualifying income under the 75% or 95% income tests and (3) to hedge certain positions as described in Section 856(c)(5)(G)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code, each of which is clearly identified as such before the closing of the day on which it was acquired, originated, or entered into, will not constitute gross income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. To the extent that we enter into other types of hedging transactions, the income from those transactions is likely to be treated as non-qualifying income for purposes of the 75% or 95% gross income tests. We intend to structure any hedging transactions in a manner that does not jeopardize our qualification as a REIT. We may conduct some or all of our hedging activities through our TRS or other corporate entity, the income from which may be subject to federal income tax, rather than by participating in the arrangements directly or through pass-through subsidiaries. No assurance can be given, however, that our hedging activities will not give rise to income that does not qualify for purposes of either or both of the REIT gross income tests, or that our hedging activities will not adversely affect our ability to satisfy the REIT qualification requirements.
Foreclosure Property
Foreclosure property is real property and any personal property incident to such real property (i) that we acquire as the result of having bid in the property at foreclosure, or having otherwise reduced the property to ownership or possession by agreement or process of law, after a default (or upon imminent default) on a lease of the property or a mortgage loan held by us and secured by the property, (ii) for which we acquired the related loan or lease at a time when default was not imminent or anticipated and (iii) with respect to which we made a proper election to treat the property as foreclosure property. We generally will be subject to tax at the maximum corporate rate (currently 21%) on any net income from foreclosure property, including any gain from the disposition of the foreclosure property, other than income that would otherwise be qualifying income for purposes of the 75% gross income test. Any gain from the sale of property for which a foreclosure property election has been made will not be subject to the 100% tax on gains from prohibited transactions described above, even if the property would otherwise constitute inventory or dealer property. We do not anticipate receiving any income from foreclosure property that does not qualify for purposes of the 75% gross income test.
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Penalty Tax
Any redetermined rents, redetermined deductions, excess interest, or redetermined TRS service income that we or our TRSs generate will be subject to a 100% penalty tax. In general, redetermined rents are rents from real property that are overstated as a result of any services furnished to any of our tenants by a TRS, redetermined deductions and excess interest represent any amounts that are deducted by a TRS for amounts paid to us that are in excess of the amounts that would have been deducted based on arm’s length negotiations, and redetermined TRS service income is income of a TRS attributable to services provided to, or on behalf of, us (other than services furnished or rendered to a tenant of ours) to the extent such income is lower than the income the TRS would have earned based on arm’s length negotiations. Rents that we receive will not constitute redetermined rents if they qualify for certain safe harbor provisions contained in the Internal Revenue Code.
From time to time, our TRS may provide services to our tenants. We intend to set the fees paid to our TRS for such services at arm’s length rates, although the fees paid may not satisfy the safe-harbor provisions described above. These determinations are inherently factual, and the IRS has broad discretion to assert that amounts paid between related parties should be reallocated to clearly reflect their respective incomes. If the IRS successfully made such an assertion, we would be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on the excess of an arm’s length fee for tenant services over the amount actually paid.
Interest Expense Deductions
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which was signed into law on December 22, 2017 (the “Tax Act”), generally imposes certain limitations on the ability of taxpayers to deduct net business interest expenses for federal income tax purposes for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2018. However, the Tax Act provides an election whereby certain taxpayers engaged in a real estate trade or business, generally including for this purpose a REIT, may elect for this limitation not to apply. Taxpayers that make this election generally are not eligible for certain depreciation methodologies. We made this election when we filed our 2018 tax return and therefore the above limitations on interest expense deductions generally would not apply to us.
In addition, the above described limitations on net business interest expense deductions generally would be determined at the entity-level. As a result, the ability of our TRSs to deduct business interest expense for tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2018 may be subject to limitations under the Tax Act even if we make such an election.
Net Operating Losses
The Tax Act also generally restricts the ability of taxpayers to utilize net operating losses to no more than 80% of their taxable income and precludes them from carrying-back net operating losses to prior tax years.
The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act, which was enacted into law on March 27, 2020, (i) removes the 80% use limitation on post-Tax Act net operating loss carryovers or carrybacks that may be deducted in tax years beginning prior to January 1, 2021, so taxpayers may use net operating losses (“NOLs”) to offset 100% of taxable income in such tax years and (ii) allows NOLs generated in tax years beginning in 2018, 2019 and 2020 to be carried back for up to five tax years. REITs, however, are not permitted to carry back losses to prior taxable years.
Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership
In General. We will own all or substantially all of our assets through our Operating Partnership, and our Operating Partnership in turn will own a substantial portion of its assets through interests in various partnerships and limited liability companies.
Except in the case of subsidiaries that have elected REIT or TRS status, we expect that our Operating Partnership and its partnership and limited liability company subsidiaries will be treated as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes. In general, entities that are classified as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes are treated as “pass-through” entities that are not required to pay U.S. federal income taxes. Rather, partners or members of such entities are allocated their share of the items of income, gain, loss, deduction and credit of the entity and are potentially required to pay tax on that income without regard to whether the partners or members receive a distribution of cash from the entity. We will include in our income our allocable share of the foregoing items for purposes of computing our REIT taxable income, based on the applicable operating agreement. As discussed
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above, for purposes of applying the REIT income and asset tests, we will include our pro rata share of the income generated by and the assets held by our Operating Partnership, including our Operating Partnership’s share of the income and assets of any subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies treated as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes, based on our capital interests in such entities.
Our ownership interests in such subsidiaries involve special tax considerations, including the possibility that the IRS might challenge the status of these entities as partnerships or disregarded entities, as opposed to associations taxable as corporations, for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If our Operating Partnership or one or more of its subsidiary partnerships or limited liability companies intended to be taxed as partnerships, were treated as an association, it would be taxable as a corporation and would be subject to U.S. federal income taxes on its income. In that case, the character of the entity and its income would change for purposes of the asset and income tests applicable to REITs and could prevent us from satisfying these tests. This, in turn, could prevent us from qualifying as a REIT.
We believe that our Operating Partnership and other subsidiary partnerships and limited liability companies that do not elect REIT or TRS status have been and/or will be classified as partnerships or disregarded entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes, and the remainder of the discussion under this section “—Tax Aspects of Our Operating Partnership” is based on such classification.
Although a domestic unincorporated entity is generally treated as a partnership (if it has more than one owner) or a disregarded entity (if it has a single owner) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, in certain situations such an entity may be treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, including if the entity is a “publicly-traded partnership” that does not qualify for an exemption based on the character of its income. A partnership is a “publicly-traded partnership” under Section 7704 of the Internal Revenue Code if interests in the partnership are traded on an established securities market or interests in the partnership are readily tradable on a “secondary market” or the “substantial equivalent” of a secondary market.
A partnership will not be treated as a publicly-traded partnership if it qualifies for certain safe harbors, one of which applies to certain partnerships with fewer than 100 partners.
There is a risk that the right of a holder of Operating Partnership units to redeem the units for cash (or stock) could cause Operating Partnership units to be considered readily tradable on the substantial equivalent of a secondary market, and we may not be eligible for a safe harbor at all times. If our Operating Partnership is a publicly-traded partnership, it will be taxed as a corporation unless at least 90% of its gross income has consisted of and will consist of “qualifying income” under Section 7704 of the Internal Revenue Code. Qualifying income generally includes real property rents and other types of passive income.
Allocations of Income, Gain, Loss and Deduction. A partnership or limited liability company agreement will generally determine the allocation of income and losses among partners or members for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These allocations, however, will be disregarded for tax purposes if they do not comply with the provisions of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury Regulations. Generally, Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the related Treasury Regulations require that partnership and limited liability company allocations respect the economic arrangement of their partners or members. If an allocation is not recognized by the IRS for U.S. federal income tax purposes, the item subject to the allocation will be reallocated according to the partners’ or members’ interests in the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be. This reallocation will be determined by taking into account all of the facts and circumstances relating to the economic arrangement of the partners or members with respect to such item. The allocations of taxable income and loss in our Operating Partnership and its partnership subsidiaries are intended to comply with the requirements of Section 704(b) of the Internal Revenue Code and the Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder.
Tax Allocations With Respect to Contributed Properties. In general, when property is contributed to a partnership in exchange for a partnership interest, the partnership inherits the carry-over tax basis of the contributing partner in the contributed property. Any difference between the fair market value and the adjusted tax basis of contributed property at the time of contribution is referred to as a “book-tax difference.” Under Section 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, income, gain, loss and deduction attributable to property with a book-tax difference that is contributed to a partnership in exchange for an interest in the partnership must be allocated in a manner so that the contributing partner is charged with the unrealized gain or benefits from the unrealized loss associated with the property at the time of the contribution, as adjusted from time to time, so that, to the extent possible under the applicable method elected under Section 704(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, the non-contributing partners receive allocations of
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depreciation and gain or loss for tax purposes comparable to the allocations they would have received in the absence of book-tax differences. These allocations are solely for U.S. federal income tax purposes and do not affect the book capital accounts or other economic or legal arrangements among the partners or members. Similar tax allocations are required with respect to the book-tax differences in the assets owned by a partnership when additional assets are contributed in exchange for a new partnership interest.
Taxation of Stockholders
Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders
Distributions. So long as we qualify as a REIT, the distributions that we make to our taxable U.S. stockholders out of current or accumulated earnings and profits that we do not designate as capital gain distributions will generally be taken into account by stockholders as ordinary income and will not be eligible for the dividends received deduction for corporations. With limited exceptions, our distributions are not eligible for taxation at the preferential income tax rates (i.e., the 20 % maximum federal rate) for qualified distributions received by U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates from taxable C corporations. Such stockholders, however, are taxed at the preferential rates on distributions designated by and received from REITs to the extent that the distributions are attributable to:
income retained by the REIT in the prior taxable year on which the REIT was subject to corporate level income tax (less the amount of tax);
distributions received by the REIT from TRSs or other taxable C corporations; or
income in the prior taxable year from the sales of “built-in gain” property acquired by the REIT from C corporations in carryover basis transactions (less the amount of corporate tax on such income).
In addition, for taxable years that begin after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026, U.S. stockholders that are individuals, trusts or estates are generally entitled to a deduction equal to 20% of the aggregate amount of ordinary income dividends received from a REIT (not including capital gain dividends or dividends eligible for the preferential rates applicable to qualified dividends as described above), subject to certain limitations. Under final regulations recently issued by the IRS, in order to qualify for this deduction with respect to a dividend on our shares, a stockholder must hold such shares for more than 45 days during the 91-day period beginning on the date which is 45 days before the date on which such shares become ex-dividend with respect to such dividend (taking into account certain special holding period rules that may, among other consequences, reduce a stockholder’s holding period during any period in which the stockholder has diminished its risk of loss with respect to the shares). Stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors as to their ability to claim this deduction.
Distributions that we designate as capital gain dividends will generally be taxed to our stockholders as long-term capital gains, to the extent that such distributions do not exceed our actual net capital gain for the taxable year, without regard to the period for which the stockholder that receives such distribution has held its stock. We may elect to retain and pay taxes on some or all of our net long-term capital gains, in which case provisions of the Internal Revenue Code will treat our stockholders as having received, solely for tax purposes, our undistributed capital gains, and the stockholders will receive a corresponding credit for taxes that we paid on such undistributed capital gains. See “Taxation of Modiv Inc. — Annual Distribution Requirements.” Corporate stockholders may be required to treat up to 20% of some capital gain distributions as ordinary income. Long-term capital gains are generally taxable at maximum federal rates of 20 % in the case of stockholders that are individuals, trusts and estates, and currently 21% in the case of stockholders that are corporations. Capital gains attributable to the sale of depreciable real property held for more than 12 months are subject to a 25% maximum federal income tax rate for taxpayers who are taxed as individuals, to the extent of previously claimed depreciation deductions.
Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits will generally represent a return of capital and will not be taxable to a stockholder to the extent that the amount of such distributions do not exceed the adjusted basis of the stockholder’s shares with respect to which the distributions were made. Rather, the distributions will reduce the adjusted basis of the stockholder’s shares. To the extent that such distributions exceed the adjusted basis of a stockholder’s shares, the stockholder generally must include such distributions in income as long-term capital gain, or short-term capital gain if the shares have been held for one year or less. In addition, any distribution that we declare in October, November or December of any year and that is payable to a stockholder of record on a specified date in any such month will be treated as both paid by us and received by the stockholder on December 31 of such year, provided that we actually pay the distribution before the end of January of the following calendar year.
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To the extent that we have available net operating losses and capital losses carried forward from prior tax years, such losses may reduce the amount of distributions that we must make in order to comply with the REIT distribution requirements. See “Taxation of Modiv Inc. — Annual Distribution Requirements.” Such losses, however, are not passed through to stockholders and do not offset income of stockholders from other sources, nor would such losses affect the character of any distributions that we make, which are generally subject to tax in the hands of stockholders to the extent that we have current or accumulated earnings and profits.
Dispositions of Our Stock. In general, capital gains recognized by individuals, trusts and estates upon the sale or disposition of our stock will be subject to a maximum federal income tax rate of 20% if the stock is held for more than one year, and will be taxed as ordinary income rates if the stock is held for one year or less. Gains recognized by stockholders that are corporations are subject to federal income tax at a maximum rate, currently 21%, whether or not such gains are classified as long-term capital gains. Capital losses recognized by a stockholder upon the disposition of our stock that was held for more than one year at the time of disposition will be considered long-term capital losses, and are generally available only to offset capital gain income of the stockholder but not ordinary income (except in the case of individuals, who may offset up to $3,000 of ordinary income each year). In addition, any loss upon a sale or exchange of shares of our stock by a stockholder who has held the shares for six months or less, after applying holding period rules, will be treated as a long-term capital loss to the extent of distributions that we make that are required to be treated by the stockholder as long-term capital gain. In addition, all or a portion of any loss realized upon a taxable disposition of shares of our stock may be disallowed if the taxpayer purchases other shares of the stock within 30 days before or after the disposition.
If an investor recognizes a loss upon a subsequent disposition of our stock or other securities in an amount that exceeds a prescribed threshold, it is possible that the provisions of Treasury regulations involving “reportable transactions” could apply, with a resulting requirement to separately disclose the loss-generating transaction to the IRS. These regulations, though directed towards “tax shelters,” are broadly written and apply to transactions that would not typically be considered tax shelters. The Internal Revenue Code imposes significant penalties for failure to comply with these requirements. You should consult your tax advisor concerning any possible disclosure obligation with respect to the receipt or disposition of our stock or securities or transactions that we might undertake directly or indirectly. Moreover, you should be aware that we and other participants in the transactions in which we are involved (including their advisors) might be subject to disclosure or other requirements pursuant to these regulations.
Repurchases. A repurchase of our shares will be treated under Section 302 of the Internal Revenue Code as a taxable dividend (to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits), unless the repurchase satisfies certain tests set forth in Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code enabling the repurchase to be treated as a sale or exchange of our shares. The repurchase will satisfy such test if it (i) is “substantially disproportionate” with respect to the stockholder, (ii) results in a “complete termination” of the stockholder’s stock interest in us, or (iii) is “not essentially equivalent to a dividend” with respect to the stockholder, all within the meaning of Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code. In determining whether any of these tests have been met, shares considered to be owned by the stockholder by reason of certain constructive ownership rules set forth in the Internal Revenue Code, as well as shares actually owned, must generally be taken into account. Because the determination as to whether any of the alternative tests of Section 302(b) of the Internal Revenue Code are satisfied with respect to any particular stockholder will depend upon the facts and circumstances existing at the time the determination is made, prospective stockholders are advised to consult their own tax advisors to determine such tax treatment. If a repurchase of our shares is treated as a distribution that is taxable as dividend, the amount of the distribution would be measured by the amount of cash and the fair market value of any property received by the stockholders. The stockholder’s adjusted tax basis in such repurchased shares would be transferred to the stockholder’s remaining stockholdings in us. If, however, the stockholder has no remaining stockholdings in us, such basis may, under certain circumstances, be transferred to a related person or it may be lost entirely.
Liquidating Distributions. Once we have adopted (or are deemed to have adopted) a plan of liquidation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, liquidating distributions received by a U.S. stockholder with respect to our shares will be treated first as a recovery of the stockholder’s basis in the shares (computed separately for each block of shares) and thereafter as gain from the disposition of our shares. In general, the U.S. federal income tax rules applicable to REITs likely will require us to complete our liquidation within 24 months following our adoption of a plan of liquidation. Compliance with this 24 month requirement could require us to distribute unsold assets to a “liquidating trust.” Each stockholder would be treated as receiving a liquidating distribution equal to the value of the liquidating
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trust interests received by the stockholder. The U.S. federal income tax treatment of ownership of an interest in any such liquidating trust would differ materially from the U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in our shares, including the potential incurrence of income treated as UBTI for tax-exempt stockholders.
Medicare tax on unearned income. Certain U.S. stockholders who are individuals, estates or trusts are required to pay an additional 3.8% tax on, among other things, dividends on and capital gains from the sale or other disposition of stock. U.S. stockholders should consult their tax advisors regarding the effect, if any, of this legislation on their ownership and disposition of our shares.
Taxation of Non-U.S. Stockholders
In general, non-U.S. stockholders will not be considered to be engaged in a U.S. trade or business solely as a result of their ownership of our shares. In cases where a non-U.S. stockholder’s investment in our shares is, or is treated as, effectively connected with the non-U.S. stockholder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business, dividend income received in respect of our shares and gain from the sale of our shares generally will be “effectively connected income” (“ECI”) subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates in the same manner as if the non-U.S. stockholder were a U.S. stockholder, and such dividend income may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (subject to possible reduction under a treaty) on the income after the application of the income tax in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation. Additionally, non-U.S. stockholders that are nonresident alien individuals who are present in the U.S. for 183 days or more during the taxable year and have a “tax home” in the U.S. are subject to a 30% withholding tax on their capital gains. The remaining discussion below assumes the dividends and gain generated in respect of our shares is not effectively connected to a U.S. trade or business of the non-U.S. stockholder and that the non-U.S. stockholder is not present in the U.S. for more than 183 days during any taxable year.
FIRPTA
Under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”), gains from U.S. real property interests (“USRPIs”) are treated as ECI subject to U.S. federal income tax at graduated rates in the same manner as if the non-U.S. stockholder were a U.S. stockholder (and potentially branch profits tax to non-U.S. corporations), and will generate return filing obligations in the United States for such non-U.S. stockholders. USRPIs for purposes of FIRPTA generally include interests in real property located in the United States and loans that provide the lender with a participation in the profits, gains, appreciation (or similar arrangements) of real property located in the United States. Loans secured by real property located in the United States that do not provide the lender with a participation in profits, gains, appreciation (or similar arrangements) of the real property are generally not treated as USRPIs.
In addition, stock of a domestic corporation (including a REIT such as us) will be a USRPI if at least 50% of its real property assets and assets used in a trade or business are USRPIs at any time during a prescribed testing period. Notwithstanding the foregoing rule, our shares will not be a USRPI (i) if we are “domestically-controlled”, (ii) if our shares owned are of a class that is regularly traded on an established securities market and the selling non-U.S. stockholder owned, actually or constructively, 10% or less of our outstanding stock of that class at all times during a specified testing period (generally the lesser of the five year period ending on the date of disposition or the period of our existence), (iii) with respect to a selling non-U.S. stockholder that is a “qualified shareholder” (as described below) or (iv) with respect to a selling non-U.S. stockholder that is a “qualified foreign pension fund” (as described below). A domestically controlled REIT is a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period (generally the lesser of the five year period ending on the date of disposition of the REIT’s shares of stock or the period of the REIT’s existence), less than 50% in value of its outstanding shares of stock is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. persons. Our Class C Common Stock and Series A Preferred Stock is “regularly traded” on the NYSE. Non-U.S. Stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Ordinary Dividends
The portion of dividends received by non-U.S. stockholders payable out of our earnings and profits that are not attributable to gains from sales or exchanges of USRPIs will generally be subject to U.S. federal withholding tax at the rate of 30%, unless reduced or eliminated by an applicable income tax treaty. Under some treaties, however, lower rates generally applicable to dividends do not apply to dividends from REITs. In addition, any portion of the dividends paid to non-U.S. stockholders that are treated as excess inclusion income will not be eligible for exemption from the 30% withholding tax or a reduced treaty rate.
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Non-Dividend Distributions
A non-U.S. stockholder should not incur tax on a distribution in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits if the excess portion of the distribution does not exceed the adjusted basis of its stock. Instead, the excess portion of the distribution will reduce the adjusted basis of that stock. A non-U.S. stockholder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on a distribution that exceeds both our current and accumulated earnings and profits and the adjusted basis of its stock unless our stock constitutes a USRPI. If our stock is a USRPI, distributions in excess of both our earnings and the non-U.S. stockholder’s basis in our stock will be treated as ECI subject to U.S. federal income tax. Regardless of whether the distribution exceeds basis, we will be required to withhold 15% of any distributions to non-U.S. stockholders in excess of our current year and accumulated earnings (i.e., including distributions that represent a return of the non-U.S. stockholder’s tax basis in our stock). The withheld amounts will be credited against any U.S. tax liability of the non-U.S. stockholder, and may be refundable to the extent such withheld amounts exceed the stockholder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liability. Even in the event our stock is not a USRPI, we may choose to withhold on the entire amount of any distribution at the same rate as we would withhold on a dividend because we may not be able to determine at the time we make a distribution whether or not the distribution will exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits. However, a non-U.S. stockholder may obtain a refund of amounts that we withhold if we later determine that a distribution in fact exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits, to the extent such withheld amounts exceed the stockholder’s actual U.S. federal income tax liability.
Capital Gain Distributions
Subject to an exception that may apply if our stock is regularly traded on an established securities market or if the selling non-U.S. stockholder is a “qualified shareholder” or a “qualified foreign pension fund,” each as described below, under a FIRPTA “look-through” rule, any of our distributions to non-U.S. stockholders of gain attributable to the sale of a USRPI will be treated as ECI and subject to 21% withholding. Amounts treated as ECI under the look-through rule may also be subject to the 30% branch profits tax (subject to possible reduction under a treaty), after the application of the income tax to such ECI, in the case of a non-U.S. stockholder that is a corporation. In addition, we will be required to withhold tax equal to 21% of the maximum amount that could have been designated as capital gains dividends. Capital gains dividends received by a non-U.S. stockholder that are attributable to dispositions of our assets other than USRPIs are not subject to U.S. federal income tax. This FIRPTA look-through rule also applies to distributions in repurchases of shares and liquidating distributions, to the extent they represent distributions of gain attributable to the sale of a USRPI.
A distribution that would otherwise have been treated as gain from the sale of a USRPI under the FIRPTA look-through rule will not be treated as ECI, and instead will be treated as otherwise described herein without regard to the FIRPTA look-through rule, if (1) the distribution is received with respect to a class of stock that is regularly traded on an established securities market located in the United States, and (2) the recipient non-U.S. stockholder does not own more than 10% of that class of stock at any time during the one-year period ending on the date on which the distribution is received. Our Class C Common Stock and Series A Preferred Stock is “regularly traded” on the NYSE. Non-U.S. Stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the application of these rules.
Dispositions of Our Shares. A sale of our shares by a non-U.S. stockholder generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax unless our shares are a USRPI. If our shares are a USRPI, gain from the sale of our shares would be ECI to the non-U.S. stockholder. If our shares are not a USRPI, gain from the sale of our shares would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.
To the extent our shares are held directly (or indirectly through one or more partnerships) by a “qualified shareholder,” our shares will not be treated as a USRPI. Further, to the extent such treatment applies, any distribution to such stockholder will not be treated as gain recognized from the sale or exchange of a USRPI. For these purposes, a qualified shareholder is generally a non-U.S. stockholder that (i)(A) is eligible for treaty benefits under an income tax treaty with the United States that includes an exchange of information program, and the principal class of interests of which is listed and regularly traded on one or more stock exchanges or (B) is a foreign limited partnership organized in a jurisdiction with an exchange of information agreement with the United States and that has a class of regularly traded limited partnership units (having a value greater than 50% of the value of all partnership units) on the NYSE or Nasdaq, (ii) is a “qualified collective investment vehicle” (within the meaning of Section 897(k)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code) and (iii) maintains records of persons holding 5% or more of the class of interests described in clauses (i)(A) or (i)(B) above. However, in the case of a qualified shareholder having one or more “applicable investors,” the exception described in the first sentence of this paragraph will not apply with respect to
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a portion of the qualified shareholder’s shares (determined by applying the ratio of the value of the interests held by applicable investors in the qualified shareholder to the value of all interests in the qualified shareholder and applying certain constructive ownership rules). Such ratio applied to the amount realized by a qualified shareholder on the disposition of our shares or with respect to a distribution from us attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a USRPI will be treated as amounts realized from the disposition of USRPIs. For these purposes, an “applicable investor” is person who holds an interest in the qualified shareholder and holds more than 10% of our shares applying certain constructive ownership rules.
FIRPTA will not apply to any USRPI held directly (or indirectly through one or more partnerships) by, or to any distribution received from a REIT by, a “qualified foreign pension fund” or any entity all of the interests of which are held by a qualified foreign pension fund. For these purposes, a “qualified foreign pension fund” is an organization or arrangement (i) created or organized in a foreign country, (ii) established to provide retirement or pension benefits to current or former employees (or their designees) of one or more employers for services rendered, (iii) which does not have a single participant or beneficiary that has a right to more than 5% of its assets or income, (iv) which is subject to government regulation and provides annual information reporting about its beneficiaries to relevant local tax authorities and (v) with respect to which, under its local laws, contributions that would otherwise be subject to tax are deductible or excluded from its gross income or taxed at a reduced rate, or taxation of its income is deferred or taxed at a reduced rate.
Repurchases and Liquidating Distributions. A repurchase of shares will be treated as a regular distribution or as a sale or exchange of the repurchased shares under the same rules of Section 302 of the Internal Revenue Code that apply to U.S. stockholders and which are discussed above under “Taxation of Taxable U.S. Stockholders.Subject to the FIRPTA look-through rule, (i) if our shares are a USRPI, gain from a repurchase treated as a sale or exchange of our shares would be ECI to the non-U.S. stockholder and (ii) if our shares are not a USRPI, gain from a repurchase treated as a sale or exchange of our shares would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.
Once we have adopted (or are deemed to have adopted) a plan of liquidation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, liquidating distributions received by a non-U.S. stockholder with respect to our shares will be treated first as a recovery of the stockholder’s basis in the shares (computed separately for each block of shares) and thereafter as gain from the disposition of our shares. Subject to the FIRPTA look-through rule, (i) if our shares are a USRPI, gain from a liquidating distribution with respect to our shares would be ECI to the non-U.S. stockholder and (ii) if our shares are not a USRPI, gain from a liquidating distribution with respect to our shares would not be subject to U.S. federal income tax.
The IRS takes the view that under the FIRPTA look-through rule, but subject to the exception described above that may apply to a holder of no more than 10% of our shares if our shares are regularly traded on an established securities market, distributions in repurchases of our shares and liquidating distributions to non-U.S. stockholders will be treated as ECI and subject to 21% withholding, and also potentially subject to branch profits tax in the case of corporate non-U.S. stockholders, to the extent that the distributions are attributable to gain from the sale of a USRPI, regardless of whether our stock is a USRPI and regardless of whether the distribution is otherwise treated as a sale or exchange.
Estate Tax. If our stock is owned or treated as owned by an individual who is not a citizen or resident (as specially defined for U.S. federal estate tax purposes) of the United States at the time of such individual’s death, the stock will be includable in the individual’s gross estate for U.S. federal estate tax purposes, unless an applicable estate tax treaty provides otherwise, and may therefore be subject to U.S. federal estate tax.
Taxation of Tax-Exempt Stockholders
Tax-exempt entities, including qualified employee pension and profit sharing trusts and individual retirement accounts, generally are exempt from federal income taxation. However, they may be subject to taxation on their unrelated business taxable income, or UBTI. While some investments in real estate may generate UBTI, the IRS has ruled that dividend distributions from a REIT to a tax-exempt entity do not constitute UBTI. Based on that ruling, and provided that (1) a tax-exempt stockholder has not held our stock as “debt financed property” within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code (i.e., where the acquisition or holding of the property is financed through a borrowing by the tax-exempt stockholder) and (2) our stock is not otherwise used in an unrelated trade or business, distributions that we make and income from the sale of our stock generally should not give rise to UBTI to a tax-exempt stockholder.
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Tax-exempt stockholders that are social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans exempt from federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (c)(9), (c)(17) and (c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code are subject to different UBTI rules, which generally require such stockholders to characterize distributions that we make as UBTI.
In certain circumstances, a pension trust that owns more than 10% of our stock could be required to treat a percentage of its distributions as UBTI, if we are a “pension-held REIT.” We will not be a pension-held REIT unless (i) we are required to “look through” one or more of our pension trust stockholders in order to satisfy the REIT “closely held” test and (ii) either (1) one pension trust owns more than 25% of the value of our stock or (2) a group of pension trusts, each individually holding more than 10% of the value of our stock, collectively owns more than 50% of our stock. Certain restrictions on ownership and transfer of our stock should generally prevent a tax-exempt entity from owning more than 10% of the value of our stock and should generally prevent us from becoming a pension-held REIT.
Tax-exempt stockholders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding the federal, state, local and foreign income and other tax consequences of owning and disposing of our stock.
Backup Withholding and Information Reporting
We must report to our U.S. stockholders and the IRS the amount of dividends paid during each calendar year and the amount of any tax withheld. Under the backup withholding rules, a U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding with respect to dividends paid unless the holder is a corporation or comes within other exempt categories and, when required, demonstrates this fact or provides a taxpayer identification number or social security number, certifies as to no loss of exemption from backup withholding and otherwise complies with applicable requirements of the backup withholding rules. A U.S. stockholder that does not provide his or her correct taxpayer identification number or social security number may also be subject to penalties imposed by the IRS. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. In addition, we may be required to withhold a portion of a capital gain distribution to any U.S. stockholder who fails to certify its non-foreign status.
We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. stockholder the amount of dividends paid to such holder and the tax withheld with respect to such dividends, regardless of whether withholding was required. Copies of the information returns reporting such dividends and withholding may also be made available to the tax authorities in the country in which the non-U.S. stockholder resides under the provisions of an applicable income tax treaty. A non-U.S. stockholder may be subject to backup withholding unless applicable certification requirements are met.
Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our stock within the United States is subject to both backup withholding and information reporting unless the beneficial owner certifies under penalties of perjury that it is a non-U.S. stockholder (and the payor does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that the beneficial owner is a U.S. person) or the holder otherwise establishes an exemption. Payment of the proceeds of a sale of our shares conducted through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries is subject to information reporting (but not backup withholding) unless the financial intermediary has documentary evidence in its records that the beneficial owner is a non-U.S. stockholder and specified conditions are met or an exemption is otherwise established.
Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules may be allowed as a refund or a credit against such holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability provided the required information is furnished to the IRS.
Other Tax Considerations
Legislative or Other Actions Affecting REITs
Prospective stockholders should recognize that the present U.S. federal income tax treatment of an investment in us may be modified by legislative, judicial or administrative action at any time and that any such action may affect investments and commitments previously made. The rules dealing with federal income taxation are constantly under review by persons involved in the legislative process and by the IRS and the U.S. Treasury Department. No assurance can be given as to whether, when, or in what form, U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to us and our stockholders may be enacted. Changes to the federal tax laws and interpretations thereof could adversely affect an investment in our stock.
State, Local and Foreign Taxes
We and our subsidiaries and stockholders may be subject to state, local or foreign taxation in various jurisdictions including those in which we or they transact business, own property or reside. We may own real property
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assets located in numerous jurisdictions, and may be required to file tax returns in some or all of those jurisdictions. Our state, local or foreign tax treatment and that of our stockholders may not conform to the federal income tax treatment discussed above. We may own foreign real estate assets and pay foreign property taxes, and dispositions of foreign property or operations involving, or investments in, foreign real estate assets may give rise to foreign income or other tax liability in amounts that could be substantial. Any foreign taxes that we incur do not pass through to stockholders as a credit against their U.S. federal income tax liability. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the application and effect of state, local and foreign income and other tax laws on an investment in our stock.
FATCA
The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) generally imposes a U.S. federal withholding tax of 30% on certain U.S. source passive payments to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities. Under FATCA, the failure to comply with additional certification, information reporting and other specified requirements could result in withholding tax being imposed on payments of dividends to U.S. stockholders who own shares of our stock through foreign accounts or foreign intermediaries and certain non-U.S. stockholders. FATCA imposes a 30% withholding tax on dividends on our shares paid to a foreign financial institution or to a foreign entity other than a financial institution, unless (i) the foreign financial institution undertakes certain diligence and reporting obligations or (ii) the foreign entity is not a financial institution and either certifies it does not have any substantial U.S. owners or furnishes identifying information regarding each substantial U.S. owner. If the payee is a foreign financial institution (that is not otherwise exempt), it must either (1) enter into an agreement with the U.S. Treasury requiring, among other things, that it undertake to identify accounts held by certain U.S. persons or U.S.-owned foreign entities, annually report certain information about such accounts, and withhold 30% on payments to account holders whose actions prevent it from complying with these reporting and other requirements or (2) in the case of a foreign financial institution that is resident in a jurisdiction that has entered into an intergovernmental agreement to implement FATCA, comply with the revised diligence and reporting obligations of such intergovernmental agreement. Prospective investors should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of FATCA to an investment in our company.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities being offered hereby in one or more of the following ways from time to time:
through agents to the public or to investors;
to underwriters or dealers for resale to the public or to investors;
directly to agents;
in “at-the-market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415 under the Securities Act to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;
directly to investors;
through a combination of any of these methods of sale; or
in any manner, as provided in the accompanying prospectus supplement.
We may also effect a distribution of the securities offered hereby through the issuance of derivative securities, including without limitation, warrants, forward delivery contracts and the writing of options. In addition, the manner in which we may sell some or all of the securities covered by this prospectus includes, without limitation, through:
a block trade in which a broker-dealer will attempt to sell as agent, but may position or resell a portion of the block, as principal, in order to facilitate the transaction;
purchases by a broker-dealer, as principal, and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;
ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which a broker solicits purchasers; or
privately negotiated transactions.
Subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT, we may also enter into hedging transactions. For example, we may:
enter into transactions with a broker-dealer or affiliate thereof in connection with which such broker-dealer or affiliate will engage in short sales of securities offered pursuant to this prospectus, in which case such broker-dealer or affiliate may use securities issued pursuant to this prospectus to close out its short positions;
sell securities short and redeliver such shares to close out our short positions;
enter into option or other types of transactions that require us to deliver securities to a broker-dealer or an affiliate thereof, who will then resell or transfer securities under this prospectus; or
loan or pledge securities to a broker-dealer or an affiliate thereof, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus.
We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of the offering of securities, including:
the name or names of any agents or underwriters;
the purchase price of the securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;
the terms of the securities offered;
any over-allotment options under which underwriters or agents may purchase or place additional securities;
any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;
any public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchanges on which such securities may be listed.
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Agents
We may designate agents who agree to use their reasonable efforts to solicit purchases for the period of their appointment or to sell the securities being offered hereby on a continuing basis, unless otherwise provided in a prospectus supplement.
We may from time to time engage a broker-dealer to act as our offering agent for one or more offerings of our securities. If we reach agreement with an offering agent with respect to a specific offering, including the number of securities and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, then the offering agent will try to sell such common stock on the agreed terms. The offering agent could make sales in privately negotiated transactions and/or any other method permitted by law, including sales deemed to be an “at-the-market” offering as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act, including sales made directly on the NYSE, or sales made to or through a market maker other than on an exchange. The offering agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, with respect to any sales effected through an “at-the-market” offering.
Underwriters
If we use underwriters for a sale of securities, the underwriters will acquire the securities, and may resell the securities in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may change from time to time any public offering price and any discounts or concessions the underwriters allow or reallow or pay to dealers. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement naming the underwriter the nature of any such relationship.
Institutional Purchasers
We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit certain institutional investors, approved by us, to purchase our securities on a delayed delivery basis or pursuant to delayed delivery contracts provided for payment and delivery on a specified future date. These institutions may include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies and educational and charitable institutions. We will describe in the prospectus supplement details of any such arrangement, including the offering price and applicable sales commissions payable on such solicitations.
Direct Sales
We may also sell securities directly to one or more purchasers without using underwriters or agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities may be underwriters as defined in the Securities Act and any discounts or commissions they receive from us and any profit on their resale of the securities may be treated as underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. We will identify in the accompanying prospectus supplement any underwriters, dealers or agents and will describe their compensation. We may have agreements with the underwriters, dealers and agents to indemnify them against specified civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of their businesses from time to time.
Underwriting Compensation
Any underwriting compensation paid by us to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers, will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act. Underwriters, dealers and agents may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us and our Operating Partnership, to indemnification against and contribution toward civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We will describe any indemnification agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Trading Markets and Listing of Securities
Unless otherwise specified in the accompanying prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities covered by this prospectus will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our Class C Common Stock and Series A Preferred Stock, each of which is listed on the NYSE. We may elect to list any other class or series
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of securities on any exchange, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.
Stabilization Activities
In accordance with Regulation M under the Exchange Act, underwriters may engage in over-allotment, stabilizing or short covering transactions or penalty bids in connection with an offering of our securities. Over-allotment transactions involve sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum price. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than they would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Certain legal matters in connection with the offering of securities covered by this prospectus have been passed upon for us by Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP and, with respect to certain matters of Maryland law, Venable LLP.
EXPERTS
The consolidated financial statements of Modiv Inc. appearing in Modiv Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2021, including the schedule appearing therein, have been audited by Baker Tilly US, LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, as set forth in their report thereon, and incorporated herein by reference. Such consolidated financial statements are incorporated herein by reference in reliance upon such report given on the authority of such firm as experts in accounting and auditing.
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Modiv Inc.
$50,000,000
Class C Common Stock
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT
B. Riley Securities
Baird
BMO Capital
Markets
Colliers
Securities
LLC
 
 
 
 
EF Hutton,
division of Benchmark
Investments, LLC
Janney
Montgomery
Scott
Ladenburg
Thalmann
Truist Securities
June 6, 2022